View a developmental anomaly category

Developmental anomaly categoryinformation for Malformation

Description: A malformation is a morphologic defect of an organ, part of organ, or larger region of the body resulting from an intrinsically abnormal developmental process. Intrinsic means that the developmental potential of the organ, its analge (primordium), was abnormal. The fact that an abnormality may not be recognizable at an early stage of development does not mean that the analge is normal. For instance, a limb bud may appear normal initially, only to express its abnormal developmental potential as an extra digit at a later stage of its development.


Developmental anomalies associated with this developmental anomaly category :

Array
(
    [Dacategory] => Array
        (
            [id] => 9
            [name] => Malformation
            [description] => A malformation is a morphologic defect of an organ, part of organ, or larger region of the body resulting from an intrinsically abnormal developmental process.
Intrinsic means that the developmental potential of the organ, its analge (primordium), was abnormal. The fact that an abnormality may not be recognizable at an early stage of development does not mean that the analge is normal. For instance, a limb bud may appear normal initially, only to express its abnormal developmental potential as an extra digit at a later stage of its development. 
        )

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            [0] => Array
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                    [id] => 2
                    [name] => Short femur with angulated shaft
                    [description] => Type 2 of congenital short femur (proximal focal femoral deficiency) has marked lateral angulation and cortical thickening resulting from transverse subtrochantric ossification defect
                    [author_id] => 1
                    [topo_code] => 23
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 44
                    [parent_da_code] => 827
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 13320
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                    [created] => 2008-02-14 00:00:00
                    [modified] => 2008-12-19 16:41:21
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
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            [1] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 6
                    [name] => Polydactyly of both fingers & toes, postaxial
                    [description] => Polydactyly is the most common congenital digital anomaly of the hand and foot. It may appear in isolation or in association with other birth defects.
                    [author_id] => 1
                    [topo_code] => 5
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 9
                    [parent_da_code] => 810
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 12571
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                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => Q69
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                    [created] => 2008-02-14 00:00:00
                    [modified] => 2008-12-17 19:15:24
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [2] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 8
                    [name] => Polydactyly,of the hand, postaxial
                    [description] => Postaxial hand polydactyly is a common isolated disorder in African black and African American children, and autosomal dominant transmission is suspected. Postaxial polydactyly is approximately 10 times more frequent in blacks than in whites and is more frequent in male children. In contrast, postaxial polydactyly seen in white children is usually syndromic and associated with an autosomal recessive transmission.




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                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-06-02 11:48:04
                    [modified] => 2008-12-17 19:14:52
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [3] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 9
                    [name] => Overlapping fingers
                    [description] => Finger terminal phalanx malunion.
                    [author_id] => 1
                    [topo_code] => 34
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 9
                    [parent_da_code] => 0
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 8459
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                    [created] => 2008-02-14 00:00:00
                    [modified] => 2008-12-04 16:11:00
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [4] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 10
                    [name] => Cubital deviation of the hand, unilateral
                    [description] => 
                    [author_id] => 1
                    [topo_code] => 33
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 9
                    [parent_da_code] => 879
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 13154
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                    [created] => 2008-02-15 00:00:00
                    [modified] => 2009-01-05 17:25:24
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [5] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 12
                    [name] => Pulmonary lobation anomalies
                    [description] => Alterations in bronchial branching and distribution of extracellular matrices.
                    [author_id] => 1
                    [topo_code] => 9
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 20
                    [parent_da_code] => 0
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 6445
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                    [created] => 2008-02-15 00:00:00
                    [modified] => 2008-12-12 16:09:35
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [6] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 14
                    [name] => Renal ectopia,crossed
                    [description] => In crossed ectopia both kidneys and proximal ureter are on the same side of the body.


                    [author_id] => 1
                    [topo_code] => 41
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 32
                    [parent_da_code] => 788
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 1618
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                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => Q63.2
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                    [created] => 2008-02-15 00:00:00
                    [modified] => 2008-12-19 19:45:32
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [7] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 15
                    [name] => Ventricular septal defect, muscular
                    [description] => VSDs are caused by embryologic malformations of the ventricular septum, there is a defect in the inferior muscular part of ventricular septum. The interventricular communication corresponds to the abnormal passage of blood between the two ventricles (generally from the left ventricle toward the right ventricle).
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                    [topo_code] => 11
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 46
                    [parent_da_code] => 0
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 5933
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                    [created] => 2008-02-15 00:00:00
                    [modified] => 2008-12-16 19:20:15
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [8] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 19
                    [name] => Micro Multicystic kidneys, medullary type
                    [description] => 
                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 41
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 32
                    [parent_da_code] => 850
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                    [created] => 2008-02-15 00:00:00
                    [modified] => 2008-12-22 19:06:52
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
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                )

            [9] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 370
                    [name] => Cortical dysgenesis (CD), diffuse
                    [description] => Abnormalities of neocortical gyration
                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 61
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 50
                    [parent_da_code] => 151
                    [adicap_ref] => 
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                    [created] => 2008-06-09 19:04:55
                    [modified] => 2009-01-05 16:58:32
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [10] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 27
                    [name] => Nonimmune hydrops fetalis (NIHF)
                    [description] => Hydrops fetalis (ie, ) is a serious fetal condition defined as abnormal accumulation of fluid in 2 or more fetal compartments, including ascites, pleural effusion, pericardial effusion, and skin edema. The basic mechanism for the formation of fetal hydrops is an imbalance of interstitial fluid production and the lymphatic return. Fluid accumulation in the fetus can result from congestive heart failure, obstructed lymphatic flow, or decreased plasma osmotic pressure. The fetus is particularly susceptible to interstitial fluid accumulation because of its greater capillary permeability, compliant interstitial compartments, and vulnerability to venous pressure on lymphatic return. 

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                    [system_code] => 61
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                    [created] => 2008-02-15 00:00:00
                    [modified] => 2008-12-05 14:02:09
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
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            [11] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 35
                    [name] => Anencephaly
                    [description] =>  Anencephaly is a designation for congenital absence of the cranial vault with cerebral hemispheres completely missing or decreased to small masses attached to the base of the skull. The etiology is unknown. .
There are three types of anencephaly: (1) meroanencephaly, where there is rudimentary brain tissue and partial formation of the cranium; (2) holoanencephaly, the most common type, in which the brain is completely absent, and (3) craniorachischisis, the most severe, where area cerebrovasculosa and area medullovasculosa fill both cranial defects and the spinal column.
                    [author_id] => 1
                    [topo_code] => 61
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 50
                    [parent_da_code] => 0
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 3410
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                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => Q00.0
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                    [wiki_ref] => Anencephaly
                    [created] => 2008-02-20 00:00:00
                    [modified] => 2010-11-01 13:14:30
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
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            [12] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 36
                    [name] => Wide space between 1st and 2nd toes, bilateral
                    [description] => 
                    [author_id] => 1
                    [topo_code] => 72
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 9
                    [parent_da_code] => 818
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 13325
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                    [ICD10_ref] => 
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                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-02-20 00:00:00
                    [modified] => 2008-12-17 20:45:01
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [13] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 39
                    [name] => Microretrognathia
                    [description] => Anomalies of jaw-cranial base relationship
                    [author_id] => 1
                    [topo_code] => 48
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 44
                    [parent_da_code] => 0
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 13340
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                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-02-22 00:00:00
                    [modified] => 2008-12-05 17:12:20
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [14] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 41
                    [name] => Polydactyly of the hand, preaxial
                    [description] =>  Polydactyly on the radial side of the hand.
                    [author_id] => 1
                    [topo_code] => 34
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 44
                    [parent_da_code] => 810
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 4520
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                    [created] => 2008-02-22 00:00:00
                    [modified] => 2008-12-17 19:16:33
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [15] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 44
                    [name] => Right aortic arch
                    [description] => Right aortic arch is when aortic arch lying to the right of the trachea and oesophagus.  Infrequently, the right arch passes to the left side higher in the thorax so that it courses behind and compresses the trachea. This is called a retrotracheal aortic arch. There are two types of right aortic arch: mirror image and nonmirror image.
 Mirror image has a left innominate artery originating as the first branch of the right arch. This type is nearly always associated with cyanotic congenital heart disease, especially tetralogy of Fallot, pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect and truncus arteriosus,(due to third and fourth brachialarch defects).
 Nonmirror-image right aortic arch usually has the left subclavian artery originating as the fourth branch of the aorta. It originates from the proximal descending aorta with a prominent diverticulum at the site of origin and a course behind the oesophagus. Rare variant types exist such as right arch with left subclavian artery unattached to the aorta but connected to the left pulmonary artery by a ductus arteriosus. Right aortic arch with aberrant left subclavian artery produces a vascular ring with compression of the oesophagus and/or airway. Nonmirror-image arch is infrequently associated with other congenital cardiac anomalies.
                    [author_id] => 1
                    [topo_code] => 54
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 58
                    [parent_da_code] => 0
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 13350
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                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => Q25.4
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                    [created] => 2008-02-22 00:00:00
                    [modified] => 2008-12-19 21:42:37
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
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                )

            [16] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 48
                    [name] => Clindodactyly of 5th finger, bilateral
                    [description] => Bilateral radio-volar deviation of little finger distal phalanx.
                    [author_id] => 1
                    [topo_code] => 34
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 44
                    [parent_da_code] => 0
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 13357
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                    [created] => 2008-02-25 00:00:00
                    [modified] => 2008-12-11 19:53:51
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [17] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 52
                    [name] => Broad nasal bridge
                    [description] => Broad nasal bridge is a widening of the top part of the nose, it can be associated with certain genetic or congenital disorders
                    [author_id] => 1
                    [topo_code] => 74
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 63
                    [parent_da_code] => 0
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                    [created] => 2008-02-25 00:00:00
                    [modified] => 2008-12-17 16:51:56
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [18] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 53
                    [name] => Low-set ears
                    [description] => Low-set ears refer to abnormalities in the position of the outer ear (pinna or auricle).
                    [author_id] => 1
                    [topo_code] => 51
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 53
                    [parent_da_code] => 0
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 28
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => Q17.4 
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                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-02-25 00:00:00
                    [modified] => 2008-12-04 15:59:13
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [19] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 55
                    [name] => Facial dysmorphism
                    [description] => Dysmorphisms of the fetal face are abnormalities in facial features which are usually associated with syndromic conditions.
                    [author_id] => 1
                    [topo_code] => 47
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 1
                    [parent_da_code] => 0
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 3476
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => Q75.9
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
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                    [created] => 2008-02-25 00:00:00
                    [modified] => 2008-12-11 19:32:17
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [20] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 56
                    [name] => Rocker-bottom feet
                    [description] => A "rocker bottom" foot describe with a prominent calcaneus and rounded bottom. Such an anomaly may suggest a chromosomal abnormality such as trisomy 18.
                    [author_id] => 1
                    [topo_code] => 27
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 9
                    [parent_da_code] => 0
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 4551
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                    [created] => 2008-02-25 00:00:00
                    [modified] => 2008-12-17 14:56:14
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [21] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 58
                    [name] => Trilobate lung, left
                    [description] => 
                    [author_id] => 1
                    [topo_code] => 9
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 20
                    [parent_da_code] => 0
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 13363
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                    [created] => 2008-02-25 00:00:00
                    [modified] => 2008-12-15 15:48:23
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [22] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 59
                    [name] => Intestinal malrotation
                    [description] => Congenital malformations of intestinal fixation(rotation): Many authors define intestinal malrotation as intestinal nonrotation or incomplete rotation around the superior mesenteric artery (SMA). It involves anomalies of intestinal fixation as well. Interruption of typical intestinal rotation and fixation during fetal development can occur at a wide range of locations, and this leads to a variety of both acute and chronic presentations of disease. 


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                    [topo_code] => 71
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 23
                    [parent_da_code] => 0
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 7663
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => Q43.3 
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                    [created] => 2008-02-25 00:00:00
                    [modified] => 2008-12-12 16:12:49
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [23] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 61
                    [name] => Cerebral ventriculomegaly
                    [description] => Enlargement of the lateral ventricles (as is the third ventricle) to between 10 mm and 15 mm in width is called ventriculomegaly.The underlying pathogenesis is due to an imbalance between CSF production and absorption, resulting in accumulation of CSF within the ventricles.  This may result from a number of causes such as obstruction of flow, excessive secretion (rare), or impaired absorption.
                    [author_id] => 1
                    [topo_code] => 61
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 12
                    [parent_da_code] => 0
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 6412
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                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-02-25 00:00:00
                    [modified] => 2009-01-02 20:57:42
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [24] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 62
                    [name] => Arnold-Chiari Type II malformation (CM II)
                    [description] =>  Chiari type II malformation (CMII) is one of three hindbrain malformations that display hydrocephalus.In this case, the cerebellum and a portion of the brainstem are displaced into the spinal canal. CM II, is a unique hindbrain herniation found only in patients with myelomeningocele.
Arnold-Chiari type II malformation may impede CSF flow and cause hydrocephalus, which occurs in more than 90% of infants with myelomeningocele(particularly after treatment of the myelomeningocele). Cerebral cortex dysplasia, including cerebral heterotopias, polymicrogyria, abnormal lamination, fused thalami, and corpus callosum abnormalities, are other anomalies often associated with Arnold-Chiari type II malformations. 

                    [author_id] => 1
                    [topo_code] => 61
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 50
                    [parent_da_code] => 0
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 13365
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => Q07.0 
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-02-25 00:00:00
                    [modified] => 2008-12-23 19:52:36
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [25] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 67
                    [name] => Retrognathia
                    [description] => Retrognathia: Retrusion of the mandible which is the one of the anomalies of jaw-cranial base relationship
                    [author_id] => 1
                    [topo_code] => 48
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 9
                    [parent_da_code] => 0
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 6525
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => 
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-02-26 00:00:00
                    [modified] => 2008-12-05 17:05:33
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [26] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 69
                    [name] => Amelia
                    [description] => Congenital absence of unspecified limb(s), the birth defect of lacking one or more limbs
                    [author_id] => 1
                    [topo_code] => 5
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 9
                    [parent_da_code] => 0
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 9915
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => 
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-02-26 00:00:00
                    [modified] => 2009-01-07 16:42:28
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [27] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 70
                    [name] => Macrocephaly
                    [description] => Macrocephaly refers to a head circumference greater than two standard deviations above the mean for age, sex, race and gestation.
                    [author_id] => 1
                    [topo_code] => 6
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 2
                    [parent_da_code] => 306
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => 
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                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-02-26 00:00:00
                    [modified] => 2009-01-05 20:16:07
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [28] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 74
                    [name] => Right bilobate lung
                    [description] => 
                    [author_id] => 1
                    [topo_code] => 9
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 20
                    [parent_da_code] => 0
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 13371
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => 
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                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-02-26 00:00:00
                    [modified] => 2008-12-04 14:53:52
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [29] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 75
                    [name] => Unilobate lung, unilateral
                    [description] => 
                    [author_id] => 1
                    [topo_code] => 9
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 20
                    [parent_da_code] => 0
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 13372
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => 
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-02-26 00:00:00
                    [modified] => 2008-12-03 19:10:19
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [30] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 85
                    [name] => Double Outlet Right Ventricle, Without Transposition and VSD
                    [description] => In 'Double Outlet Right Ventricle' (DORV) the two Great Arteries (Aorta and Pulmonary Artery) both originate from the right ventricle.
In this type of DORV(without transposition and VSD), blood mixes in the right ventricule. 
                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 11
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 46
                    [parent_da_code] => 865
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 10311
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => Q20.1 
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-03-06 00:00:00
                    [modified] => 2009-01-02 18:44:48
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [31] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 96
                    [name] => Hydronephrosis, congenital, bilateral
                    [description] =>  
                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 41
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 32
                    [parent_da_code] => 856
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => Q62.0
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-03-07 00:00:00
                    [modified] => 2008-12-29 14:59:36
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [32] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 857
                    [name] => Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT)
                    [description] => Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) make up a family of diseases with a diverse anatomic spectrum, including kidney anomalies (e.g., renal dysplasia, duplex kidney, and hydronephrosis) and ureter anomalies (e.g., vesicoureteral reflux, megaureter, and ureterovesical junction (UVJ) obstruction).Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR, OMIM 193000), one of the most common manifestations of CAKUT, with an incidence of approximately 1 in 100 infants, is characterized by the reflux of urine from the bladder into the ureters and sometimes into the kidneys, and is a risk factor for urinary tract infections (Lu et al., 2007). Primary VUR results from a developmental defect of the ureterovesical junction (UVJ). In combination with intrarenal reflux, the resulting inflammatory reaction may result in renal injury or scarring, also called reflux nephropathy (RN). 
                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 41
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 6
                    [parent_da_code] => 0
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 193000
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => 
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-12-29 15:12:17
                    [modified] => 2008-12-29 15:16:42
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [33] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 100
                    [name] => Imperforate Anus
                    [description] => Imperforate Anus :
Some form of imperforate anus occurs once in about 5000 births; it is more common in males. It results from low malformations of the anorectal region and classified as:
1-Anal Agenesis, with or without fistula—The anal canal may end blindly and there may be an ectopic opening (ectopic anus), or fistula, that commonly opens into the perineum.  However, the fistula may open into the vulva in females or the urethra in males.  Anal agenesis with fistula results from incomplete separation of the cloaca by the urorectal septum.  It accounts for about 46 percent of cases. 
2- Anal Stenosis--The anus is in the normal position, but there is a narrowing of the anal canal.  This malformation is probably caused by a slight dorsal deviation of the urorectal septum as it grows caudally to fuse with the cloacal membrane.  As a result, the anal membrane (and later the anus) is small.  Sometimes, only a small probe can be inserted (the so-called microscopic anus). 
 3-Membranous Atresia (“Covered Anus”)--The anus is in the normal position, but a thin layer of tissue separates the anal canal from the exterior.  The membrane is thin enough to bulge on straining and appears blue from the presence of meconium behind it.  This malformation is very rare and results from failure of the anal membrane to perforate at the end of the eighth week.
                    [author_id] => 1
                    [topo_code] => 21
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 29
                    [parent_da_code] => 245
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 4134
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => 
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                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-03-07 00:00:00
                    [modified] => 2009-01-05 16:05:54
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [34] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 102
                    [name] => Megarectum
                    [description] => Megarectum is a large filled rectum (persistent dilatation of rectum) as a result of underlying nerve supply abnormalities or muscle dysfunction, which remains after disimpaction of the rectum.
                    [author_id] => 1
                    [topo_code] => 21
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 28
                    [parent_da_code] => 0
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 6750
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => 
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-03-07 00:00:00
                    [modified] => 2008-12-22 16:18:06
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [35] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 110
                    [name] => Triangular face
                    [description] => associated with prominent forehead and deep eyes
                    [author_id] => 1
                    [topo_code] => 47
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 1
                    [parent_da_code] => 0
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => 
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-03-10 00:00:00
                    [modified] => 2008-12-11 20:00:12
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [36] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 111
                    [name] => Posteriorly inclined and low-positioned ears
                    [description] => 
                    [author_id] => 1
                    [topo_code] => 51
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 53
                    [parent_da_code] => 0
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 13420
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => 
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-03-10 00:00:00
                    [modified] => 2008-12-05 16:10:44
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [37] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 115
                    [name] => Pulmonary artery dilatation, fetal
                    [description] =>  Associated with tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) in fetus
                    [author_id] => 1
                    [topo_code] => 52
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 48
                    [parent_da_code] => 0
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 13423
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => 
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-03-11 00:00:00
                    [modified] => 2008-12-12 14:57:20
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [38] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 118
                    [name] => Aberrant right subclavian artery
                    [description] => Aberrant right subclavian artery is an aberrant arising of the right subclavian artery from the posterior portion of the aortic arch. It crosses the mediastinum obliquely from left to right, posterior to the esophagus and trachea.
                    [author_id] => 1
                    [topo_code] => 52
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 48
                    [parent_da_code] => 0
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 10233
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => 
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => Aberrant_subclavian_artery
                    [created] => 2008-03-12 00:00:00
                    [modified] => 2009-01-06 14:25:29
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [39] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 120
                    [name] => Large nose, fetal
                    [description] => 
                    [author_id] => 1
                    [topo_code] => 74
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 63
                    [parent_da_code] => 0
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 13426
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => 
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-03-12 00:00:00
                    [modified] => 2008-12-11 19:42:49
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [40] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 123
                    [name] => Ambiguous genitalia
                    [description] => Ambiguity of sexual differentiation.
                    [author_id] => 1
                    [topo_code] => 18
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 56
                    [parent_da_code] => 764
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 8384
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => 
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-03-14 00:00:00
                    [modified] => 2009-05-04 19:58:35
                    [modified_by] => 2
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [41] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 124
                    [name] => Crossed fused renal ectopia
                    [description] => Crossed fused renal ectopia is the fusion of both kidneys, with at least one kidney on the side opposite its normal location
                    [author_id] => 1
                    [topo_code] => 41
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 32
                    [parent_da_code] => 788
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 2420
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => 
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-03-14 00:00:00
                    [modified] => 2008-12-19 19:50:13
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [42] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 128
                    [name] => Syndactyly of the fingers, complex,  bilateral
                    [description] => 
                    [author_id] => 1
                    [topo_code] => 34
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 44
                    [parent_da_code] => 831
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 13429
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => Q70.2
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-03-17 00:00:00
                    [modified] => 2008-12-19 18:02:09
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [43] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 832
                    [name] => Syndactyly of the toes, complex
                    [description] => 
                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 72
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 44
                    [parent_da_code] => 830
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => 
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-12-19 18:03:28
                    [modified] => 2008-12-19 18:04:50
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [44] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 138
                    [name] => Badly-hemmed ears
                    [description] => 
                    [author_id] => 1
                    [topo_code] => 51
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 53
                    [parent_da_code] => 55
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => 
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-03-18 00:00:00
                    [modified] => 2009-01-05 20:52:47
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [45] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 144
                    [name] => Hypotelorisme
                    [description] => Closely spaced eyes
                    [author_id] => 1
                    [topo_code] => 50
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 51
                    [parent_da_code] => 55
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => 
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-03-19 00:00:00
                    [modified] => 2008-12-22 20:14:52
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [46] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 147
                    [name] => Encephalocele, occipital
                    [description] => Occipital encephalocele is the most common form of encephalocele in the Western Hemisphere (71% in the United States).
Type III of Chiari malformation(CMlll), the most serious form of CM, occurs when the cerebellum and brainstem protrude through the foramen magnum and into the spinal canal. Although rare, the protruding tissue sometimes causes a pouch-like structure to appear on the back of the head or neck (occipital encephalocele). The covering of the brain and spinal cord also can protrude through an abnormal opening in the back of the skull, resulting in significant neurological problems, and life-threatening complications may develop.



                    [author_id] => 1
                    [topo_code] => 63
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 14
                    [parent_da_code] => 148
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 5253
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => 
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-03-19 00:00:00
                    [modified] => 2009-05-05 15:09:25
                    [modified_by] => 2
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [47] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 148
                    [name] => Encephalocele
                    [description] => Encephalocele represents one end of the spectrum of open neural tube diagnoses.The diagnosis is based on the herniation of a spherical, fluid-filled structure, more correctly diagnosed as a meningocele or brain parenchyma (encephalocele) beyond the calvarial confines.
The primary abnormality in the development of an encephalocele is a mesodermal defect resulting in a defect in the calvarium and dura that is associated with herniation of CSF, brain tissue, and meninges through the defect. The root cause of an encephalocele is the failure of surface ectoderm to separate from the neuroectoderm early in embryonic development. In the calvarium, induction of bone formation may be defective, or pressure erosion from an intracranial mass may occur. Defects at the skull base may be related to faulty closure of the neural tube or to failure of basilar ossification. Encephaloceles may be occipital (75%), fronto-ethmoidal (13-15%), parietal (10-12%), or sphenoidal. Fronto-ethmoidal encephaloceles are most common in Asia.    
                    [author_id] => 1
                    [topo_code] => 6
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 50
                    [parent_da_code] => 0
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 5231
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => Q01.
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-03-19 00:00:00
                    [modified] => 2008-10-15 15:36:01
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [48] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 149
                    [name] => Hexadactyly, postaxial
                    [description] => Hexadactyly refers the presence of an extra digit, a sixth finger or toe.
                    [author_id] => 1
                    [topo_code] => 34
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 44
                    [parent_da_code] => 0
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 10399
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => 
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-03-19 00:00:00
                    [modified] => 2008-12-05 18:23:50
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [49] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 151
                    [name] => Neuronal migration anomaly
                    [description] => Neuronal migration disorders  (Gray matter heterotopia) are common malformations of cortical development with disruption of the six-layered neocortex. From a clinical perspective, affected patients are best divided into three groups: subependymal, subcortical, and band heterotopia (also called double cortex).

                    [author_id] => 1
                    [topo_code] => 61
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 50
                    [parent_da_code] => 0
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => Q04.3 
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-03-25 00:00:00
                    [modified] => 2009-01-05 17:02:08
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [50] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 156
                    [name] => Lobulated, fused and horseshoe kidney
                    [description] => A variant of group of so-called fusion anomalies, in which both kidneys are fused together in early embryonic life.
                    [author_id] => 1
                    [topo_code] => 41
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 32
                    [parent_da_code] => 851
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 3418
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => 
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-03-25 00:00:00
                    [modified] => 2008-12-22 19:31:26
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [51] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 160
                    [name] => Macrostomia
                    [description] => Greatly exaggerated width of the mouth, resulting from failure of union of the maxillary and mandibular processes, with extension of the oral orifice toward the ear. The defect may be unilateral or bilateral
                    [author_id] => 1
                    [topo_code] => 48
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 55
                    [parent_da_code] => 0
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => Q18.2
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-05-08 00:00:00
                    [modified] => 2008-12-12 16:43:06
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [52] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 167
                    [name] => Trilobate lung, bilateral
                    [description] => 
                    [author_id] => 1
                    [topo_code] => 8
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 20
                    [parent_da_code] => 12
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => 
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-05-09 00:00:00
                    [modified] => 2008-12-19 22:55:51
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [53] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 170
                    [name] => Scoliosis, congenital
                    [description] =>  Congenital scoliosis is a curvature of the spine that results from disruption of normal vertebral development, anomalies or abnormally developed vertebraea or fused ribs during prenatal development.The number of abnormal vertebra, their location, and the growth potential around these abnormal vertebrae, is what determines how severe congenital curvature will become.


                    [author_id] => 1
                    [topo_code] => 67
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 9
                    [parent_da_code] => 0
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 1696
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => Q76.3 
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-05-09 00:00:00
                    [modified] => 2008-12-22 19:09:38
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [54] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 171
                    [name] => Polydactyly of the foot
                    [description] => Polydactyly is the most common congenital anomaly of the forefoot.
Polydactyly most commonly refers to the presence of 6 toes on one foot, but more toes are possible. Polydactyly may be associated with syndactyly. It most frequently occurs as an isolated trait with autosomal dominant inheritance and variable penetrance. Other patterns of inheritance, sporadic occurrence, and association with syndromes are also possible.
                    [author_id] => 1
                    [topo_code] => 27
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 9
                    [parent_da_code] => 810
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => Q69.2 
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-05-09 00:00:00
                    [modified] => 2008-12-17 19:18:31
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [55] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 175
                    [name] => Anomalous  pulmonary veins connection to superior & inferior vena cava
                    [description] => 
                    [author_id] => 1
                    [topo_code] => 52
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 49
                    [parent_da_code] => 865
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => Q26.2 
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-05-09 00:00:00
                    [modified] => 2009-01-07 17:10:55
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [56] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 179
                    [name] => Cyclopia
                    [description] => Cyclopia is a congenital disorder (birth defect) predominantly affecting facial appearance characterized by the failure of the embryonic prosencephalon to properly divide the orbits of the eye into two cavities (single orbital cavity). 
                    [author_id] => 1
                    [topo_code] => 50
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 51
                    [parent_da_code] => 0
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] =>  Q87.0 
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-05-09 00:00:00
                    [modified] => 2009-01-05 18:40:48
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [57] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 184
                    [name] => Diaphragmatic hernia, congenital
                    [description] => The diaphragm initially develops as a septum between the heart and liver, progresses posterolaterally, and closes at the left Bochdalek foramen at approximately 8-10 weeks' gestation.Recent studies show that the diaphragmatic defect occurs in the initial stages of diaphragm development, rather than in the later stages.
The herniation of viscera in CDH usually occurs during the pseudoglandular stage of lung development. Lung compression results in pulmonary hypoplasia that is most severe on the ipsilateral side, although both lungs may be abnormal. CDH is characterized by a variable degree of pulmonary hypoplasia associated with a decrease in cross-sectional area of the pulmonary vasculature and dysfunction of the surfactant system. In very severe cases, left ventricular hypoplasia is observed. Pulmonary capillary blood flow is decreased because of the small cross-sectional area of the pulmonary vascular bed, and flow may be further decreased by abnormal pulmonary. 
The 3 basic types of CDH include the posterolateral Bochdalek hernia (occurring at approximately 6 weeks' gestation), the anterior Morgagni hernia, and the hiatus hernia. 
The left-sided Bochdalek hernia occurs in approximately 85% of cases. Left-sided hernias allow herniation of both the small and large bowel and intraabdominal solid organs into the thoracic cavity. 
In right-sided hernias (13% of cases), only the liver and a portion of the large bowel tend to herniate. Bilateral hernias are uncommon and usually fatal.



                    [author_id] => 1
                    [topo_code] => 8
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 3
                    [parent_da_code] => 0
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => Q79.0 
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-05-12 00:00:00
                    [modified] => 2009-01-02 15:08:35
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [58] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 186
                    [name] => Ventricular septal defect, membranous
                    [description] => VSDs are characterized by a split in the endocardial cushion cells in the interventricular component of the membranous septum which is close to the atrioventricular node.
                    [author_id] => 1
                    [topo_code] => 11
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 46
                    [parent_da_code] => 0
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => Q21.0 
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-05-12 00:00:00
                    [modified] => 2008-12-15 14:13:28
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [59] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 188
                    [name] => Wide space between 2nd and third fingers
                    [description] => 
                    [author_id] => 1
                    [topo_code] => 34
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 9
                    [parent_da_code] => 815
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => 
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-05-12 00:00:00
                    [modified] => 2008-12-17 20:49:22
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [60] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 193
                    [name] => Hydromyelia
                    [description] => Hydromyelia (HM) is a condition characterized by widening of the central canal of the spinal cord. Fluid can accumulate in this space, creating increased pressure on the spinal cord.
                    [author_id] => 1
                    [topo_code] => 65
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 15
                    [parent_da_code] => 0
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => Q06.4 
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-05-13 00:00:00
                    [modified] => 2008-12-29 14:48:01
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [61] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 198
                    [name] => Transverse palmar crease, bilateral
                    [description] => In humans, a single transverse palmar crease is a single crease that extends across the palm of the hand, formed by the fusion of the two palmar creases that people typically have. The presence of a single transverse palmar crease can be, but is not always, a symptom of certain medical conditions such as Fetal alcohol syndrome and genetic abnormalities including Down syndrome and Noonan syndrome. Males are twice as likely as females to have this condition.
                    [author_id] => 1
                    [topo_code] => 33
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 61
                    [parent_da_code] => 0
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => 
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-05-13 00:00:00
                    [modified] => 2008-12-16 16:47:30
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [62] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 210
                    [name] => Clinodactyly
                    [description] => Clinodactyly is a fixed abnormal deviation of the fifth fingerin the coronal or radioulnar plane. The deviation is caused by the abnormally small size of the middle phalanx, which produces a radial angulation of the distal interphalangeal joint.

                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 34
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 45
                    [parent_da_code] => 0
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 13370
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => 
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-05-14 00:00:00
                    [modified] => 2009-01-05 14:05:29
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [63] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 218
                    [name] => Interhemispheric cyst, brain
                    [description] => Interhemispheric cyst is a congenital cerebral cyst in which cystic collection located in the interhemispheric fissure, with or without communication with the ventricular system, leading to upward displacement of dilated third cerebral ventricle.
                    [author_id] => 1
                    [topo_code] => 61
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 12
                    [parent_da_code] => 0
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => Q04.6 
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-05-14 00:00:00
                    [modified] => 2008-12-23 20:55:29
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [64] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 219
                    [name] => Colpocephaly
                    [description] => Disproportionate enlargement of the occipital horns of the lateral ventricles in association with partial or complete agenesis of the corpus callosum.
                    [author_id] => 1
                    [topo_code] => 61
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 12
                    [parent_da_code] => 61
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => 
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-05-14 00:00:00
                    [modified] => 2009-01-05 14:37:07
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [65] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 222
                    [name] => Camptodactyly, bilateral
                    [description] => Bilateral camptodactyly. Camptodactyly is a medical  condition involving fixed flexion deformity  of the interphalangeal joints of the little finger. This involves permanent flexure of one or more phalanges (fingers). Isolated (non-syndromal) camptodactyly (MIM.114200) is an autosomal dominant trait that is known for its incomplete expressivity as it can occur in both little fingers, one, or neither.
                    [author_id] => 1
                    [topo_code] => 34
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 45
                    [parent_da_code] => 875
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 4147
                    [omim_ref] => 114200
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => 
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => camptodactyly
                    [created] => 2008-05-14 00:00:00
                    [modified] => 2010-10-06 17:11:33
                    [modified_by] => 2
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [66] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 226
                    [name] => Ductal plate malformation
                    [description] => Ductal plate malformation (DPM) is the persistence of excess of embryonic bile duct structures in the portal tracts. It is one of the possible etiologies of biliary aresia (BA) and the development of congenital hepatic fibrosis
                    [author_id] => 2
                    [topo_code] => 37
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 72
                    [parent_da_code] => 0
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 2823
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => 
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-05-15 00:00:00
                    [modified] => 2009-01-02 18:51:00
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [67] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 228
                    [name] => Tetra-amelia
                    [description] => Tetra-amelia syndrome is a very rare disorder characterized by the absence of all four limbs.This syndrome can also cause severe malformations of other parts of the body, including the face and head, heart, nervous system, skeleton, and genitalia.
                    [author_id] => 1
                    [topo_code] => 5
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 9
                    [parent_da_code] => 0
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 273395
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => 
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-05-15 00:00:00
                    [modified] => 2008-12-17 15:20:05
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [68] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 229
                    [name] => Polydactyly postaxial & preaxial of toes
                    [description] => 
                    [author_id] => 1
                    [topo_code] => 72
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 9
                    [parent_da_code] => 0
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => 
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-05-15 00:00:00
                    [modified] => 2008-12-17 15:45:40
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [69] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 235
                    [name] => Ebstein anomaly
                    [description] => Ebstein anomaly of the tricuspid valve is a congenital heart lesion that involves abnormal attachments of the tricuspid valve leaflets to the annulus of the tricuspid valve. Marked variability exists in the degree of displacement of the septal and posterior leaflets into the cavity of the right ventricle. This may result in a right ventricle that is divided into an atrialized portion above the valve leaflets and a muscular portion below the valve leaflets. An atrial septal defect (ASD) or patent foramen ovale (PFO) is present in 90% of the patients; pulmonary stenosis or atresia is present in 20-25% of the patients.
                    [author_id] => 1
                    [topo_code] => 11
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 46
                    [parent_da_code] => 865
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 8167
                    [omim_ref] => 224700
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => Q22.5 
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-05-16 00:00:00
                    [modified] => 2008-12-30 16:39:24
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [70] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 240
                    [name] => Atrioventricular - channel
                    [description] => An AV - channel as a septal defect involving the AV - valves. It exists where the wall between the upper chambers joins the wall between the lower chambers. Also, the tricuspid and mitral valves that normally separate the heart's upper and lower chambers aren't formed as individual valves. Instead, a single large valve forms that crosses the defect (a common AV - valve). 
A big amount of oxygen saturated blood flows from the left to the right heart and then through the lungs. 

                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 11
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 46
                    [parent_da_code] => 865
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => 
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-05-16 00:00:00
                    [modified] => 2009-01-07 19:16:27
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [71] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 262
                    [name] => Gothic palate
                    [description] => An abnormally highly arched palate.
                    [author_id] => 1
                    [topo_code] => 48
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 44
                    [parent_da_code] => 0
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => Q38.5
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                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-05-23 00:00:00
                    [modified] => 2008-12-15 19:20:32
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [72] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 264
                    [name] => Cordiform uterus
                    [description] => An incomplete uterus bicornis with a wedge-shaped depression at the fundus.
                    [author_id] => 1
                    [topo_code] => 20
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 41
                    [parent_da_code] => 864
                    [adicap_ref] => 
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                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
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                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-05-23 00:00:00
                    [modified] => 2009-01-05 16:50:42
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [73] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 265
                    [name] => Axillary pterygia,unilateral
                    [description] => Bandlike web across one axilla 
                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 76
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 61
                    [parent_da_code] => 460
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 
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                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-05-23 00:00:00
                    [modified] => 2009-01-07 19:27:19
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [74] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 268
                    [name] => Arhinencephaly
                    [description] => A rare disorder where abnormalities of the fetal forebrain development lead to various birth defects such as congenital absence of the olfactory bulbs, tract or nerves.
                    [author_id] => 1
                    [topo_code] => 61
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 12
                    [parent_da_code] => 0
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => Q04.1
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-05-23 00:00:00
                    [modified] => 2008-12-04 19:41:16
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [75] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 401
                    [name] => Lissencephaly
                    [description] => Lissencephaly is part of a spectrum of brain malformations, which are referred to as the agyria pachygyria-band spectrum and are caused by abnormalities in neuronal migration, a critical process in brain development that leads to the gross appearance of a smooth brain.The malformed brain lacks the characteristic convolutions of the normal cerebral cortex and is abnormally thick.These disorders range from complete absence of folds (agyria) to milder forms such as subcortical band heterotopia or double cortex syndrome, a neurological disorder where the malformed brain has two distinct layers of cerebral cortex. In pachygyria, there are localized areas of abnormally large folds and, in general, it is less severe than agyria. Scientific research on mice and humans has revealed several important genes responsible for causing lissencephaly.
Lissencephaly can be divided into two main subtypes. Type I, also known as classical lissencephaly, is distinguished by the smooth surface of the cerebral cortex and an abnormal four-layered cortex. Classical lissencephaly can be associated with abnormalities of the rest of the brain, including malformation of the corpus callosum or cerebellum. Lissencephaly can also be associated with other developmental abnormalities such as facial deformities in a syndrome known as the Miller-Dieker syndrome. Type II, or "cobblestone" lissencephaly, is characterized by a bumpy appearance of the abnormal surface of the brain. The cortex in Type II lissencephaly is completely abnormal and there are no distinguishable layers. This subtype tends to be associated with genetic syndromes affecting muscles, as in the Walker-Warburg syndrome.

                    [author_id] => 2
                    [topo_code] => 61
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 12
                    [parent_da_code] => 151
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => Q04.33
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-06-13 02:57:57
                    [modified] => 2008-12-22 19:18:02
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [76] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 269
                    [name] => Primordial iris
                    [description] => Retention of primordial endothelial tissue on the iris, 
                    [author_id] => 1
                    [topo_code] => 50
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 51
                    [parent_da_code] => 0
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => Q13.2
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-05-23 00:00:00
                    [modified] => 2008-12-19 22:51:23
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [77] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 270
                    [name] => Anophthalmos, bilateral
                    [description] => Complete absence of the ocular tissue within both orbits.
                    [author_id] => 1
                    [topo_code] => 50
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 51
                    [parent_da_code] => 799
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => Q11.1
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-05-23 00:00:00
                    [modified] => 2009-01-07 17:17:50
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [78] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 282
                    [name] => Split-hand/split-foot malformation (SHFM)
                    [description] => Split-hand/split-foot malformation (SHFM) is a limb malformation involving the central rays of the autopod (the distal division of the limb such as the foot or hand) and presenting with syndactyly, median clefts of the hands and feet, and aplasia and/or hypoplasia of the phalanges, metacarpals and metatarsals.
Ectrodactyly (non-specific term meaning congenital absence of fingers or toes, OMIM 183600 when dominant.) is a rare congenital deformity of the hand where the middle digit is missing, and the hand is cleft where the metacarpal of the finger should be. This split gives the hands the appearance of lobster claws.

. 

                    [author_id] => 1
                    [topo_code] => 33
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 44
                    [parent_da_code] => 0
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 225300
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => Q71.6
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-05-27 00:00:00
                    [modified] => 2008-12-05 16:37:33
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [79] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 283
                    [name] => Unicorn Uterus
                    [description] => A uterus with one lateral half undeveloped or absent
                    [author_id] => 1
                    [topo_code] => 20
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 41
                    [parent_da_code] => 864
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => Q51.4
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-05-27 00:00:00
                    [modified] => 2008-12-30 14:32:32
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [80] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 284
                    [name] => Enophtalmus
                    [description] => Enophthalmos can be defined as the relative recession (backward or downward displacement) of the globe into the bony orbit
                    [author_id] => 1
                    [topo_code] => 50
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 51
                    [parent_da_code] => 0
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => H05.4
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => oph/617
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 18249
                    [mesh_ref] => D015841
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-05-28 00:00:00
                    [modified] => 2008-12-04 16:31:06
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [81] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 286
                    [name] => Bicuspid aortic valve
                    [description] => A bicuspid aortic valve is an aortic valve with only two cusps (instead of three); situated between the left ventricle and aorta
                    [author_id] => 1
                    [topo_code] => 11
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 46
                    [parent_da_code] => 861
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 109730
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => Q23.1
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-05-28 00:00:00
                    [modified] => 2008-12-29 18:55:24
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [82] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 289
                    [name] => Axillary pterygia, bilateral
                    [description] => 
                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 76
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 61
                    [parent_da_code] => 460
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => 
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-05-29 00:00:00
                    [modified] => 2009-01-07 19:28:09
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [83] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 296
                    [name] => Syndactyly, simple (webbed), fingers
                    [description] => 
                    [author_id] => 1
                    [topo_code] => 34
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 9
                    [parent_da_code] => 719
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => 
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-05-29 00:00:00
                    [modified] => 2008-12-19 17:41:02
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [84] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 299
                    [name] => Cryptophthalmos
                    [description] => Cryptophthalmos is a rare congenital anomaly in which the skin is continuous over the eyeball with absence of eyelids. It is classified into three types: complete, incomplete and abortive
                    [author_id] => 1
                    [topo_code] => 50
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 51
                    [parent_da_code] => 0
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => Q11.2
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-05-29 00:00:00
                    [modified] => 2009-01-05 17:10:10
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [85] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 303
                    [name] => Cubital pterygium, bilateral
                    [description] => Webbing or pterygia in the cubital soft tissu, causing joint contractures
                    [author_id] => 1
                    [topo_code] => 1
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 61
                    [parent_da_code] => 0
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => 
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
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                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-05-29 00:00:00
                    [modified] => 2009-01-05 18:35:32
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [86] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 306
                    [name] => Trigonocephaly
                    [description] => Premature fusion of the metopic suture compromises the transverse growth of the forehead which causes a triangular shaped forehead that is associated with orbital hypotelorism
                    [author_id] => 1
                    [topo_code] => 46
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 44
                    [parent_da_code] => 880
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => Q75.0
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-05-30 00:00:00
                    [modified] => 2009-01-05 20:17:25
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [87] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 317
                    [name] => Epicanthus
                    [description] => An epicanthal fold is skin of the upper eyelid, from the nose to the inner side of the eyebrow, that covers the inner corner (canthus) of the eye.
                    [author_id] => 1
                    [topo_code] => 50
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 51
                    [parent_da_code] => 55
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => 
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-06-02 00:00:00
                    [modified] => 2008-12-16 16:43:18
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [88] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 321
                    [name] => Acrocephaly
                    [description] => In acrocephaly, the head appears pointed (acrocephaly) because of premature closing of the cranial sutures (Craniosynostosis) between the individual bones that make up the skull.
                    [author_id] => 1
                    [topo_code] => 46
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 44
                    [parent_da_code] => 880
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => Q75.0
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-06-02 00:00:00
                    [modified] => 2009-01-07 14:31:38
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [89] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 329
                    [name] => Syndactyly of the toes, complex,  bilateral
                    [description] => 
                    [author_id] => 1
                    [topo_code] => 72
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 9
                    [parent_da_code] => 832
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => Q70.0  
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-06-03 00:00:00
                    [modified] => 2008-12-19 18:06:10
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [90] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 330
                    [name] => Non-segmented lung
                    [description] => 
                    [author_id] => 1
                    [topo_code] => 9
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 20
                    [parent_da_code] => 0
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => 
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-06-03 00:00:00
                    [modified] => 2008-12-15 19:31:15
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [91] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 336
                    [name] => Cystic dilatation of the fourth ventricle
                    [description] => Associated with Dandy-Walker malformation
                    [author_id] => 1
                    [topo_code] => 61
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 2
                    [parent_da_code] => 399
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => 
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-06-03 00:00:00
                    [modified] => 2009-01-07 19:03:16
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [92] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 342
                    [name] => Acephaly
                    [description] => Acephaly is a type of cephalic disorder. This literally means absence of the head. It is a much rarer condition than anencephaly. The acephalic fetus is a parasitic twin attached to an otherwise intact fetus. The acephalic fetus has a body but lacks a head and heart; the fetus's neck is attached to the normal twin. 

                    [author_id] => 1
                    [topo_code] => 6
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 12
                    [parent_da_code] => 318
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 13847
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => Q00.0 
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-06-03 00:00:00
                    [modified] => 2010-11-01 13:10:57
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [93] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 346
                    [name] => Syndactyly of the  toes, unilateral
                    [description] => 
                    [author_id] => 1
                    [topo_code] => 72
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 44
                    [parent_da_code] => 0
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => Q70.2 
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-06-03 00:00:00
                    [modified] => 2008-12-11 19:39:19
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [94] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 347
                    [name] => Syndactyly of the fingers, complex, unilateral
                    [description] => 
                    [author_id] => 1
                    [topo_code] => 34
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 44
                    [parent_da_code] => 831
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => Q70.0  
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-06-03 00:00:00
                    [modified] => 2008-12-19 17:58:36
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [95] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 349
                    [name] => Phocomelia
                    [description] => Phocomelia is a congenital anomaly in which the limbs are extremely shortened so that the feet and hands arise close to the trunk. 

                    [author_id] => 1
                    [topo_code] => 5
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 9
                    [parent_da_code] => 0
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => Q73.1
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-06-03 00:00:00
                    [modified] => 2008-12-19 22:47:07
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [96] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 363
                    [name] => Congenital pouch colon
                    [description] => Congenital pouch colon (CPC) is a rare malformation in which the distal part of a shortened colon forms a significant dilated pouch associated with a high anorectal malformation (colo-vesical fistula). The pouch differs from a normal colon structurally, histologically and functionally. (A pouch is called a diverticulum, and multiple pouches are called diverticula.)
                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 17
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 24
                    [parent_da_code] => 245
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 7893
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => 
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-06-06 19:52:08
                    [modified] => 2010-10-06 16:56:00
                    [modified_by] => 2
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [97] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 369
                    [name] => Fusion of the adrenal glands
                    [description] => A fused adrenal was always associated with multiple congenital anomalies, including major central nervous system malformations. The fused adrenal had either a horseshoe or butterfly shape.
                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 42
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 31
                    [parent_da_code] => 0
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => 
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-06-09 17:00:57
                    [modified] => 2008-12-16 17:05:00
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [98] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 371
                    [name] => Branchial fistula
                    [description] => A branchial fistula is a patent, duct-like structure having both an external (cutaneous) and internal (pharyngeal) orifice.
                    [author_id] => 2
                    [topo_code] => 55
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 16
                    [parent_da_code] => 0
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 13783
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => 
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-06-09 20:34:34
                    [modified] => 2009-01-05 18:59:38
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [99] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 374
                    [name] => Aberrant left subclavian artery
                    [description] => Aberrant subclavian artery, or aberrant subclavian artery syndrome refers to a rare anatomical variant of the origin of the right (ARSA) or left (ALSA) subclavian artery. This abnormality is the most common congenital vascular anomaly of the aortic arch. Two types are distingued: right aberrant subclavian artery (ARSA) and left aberrant subclavian artery (ALSA).
                    [author_id] => 2
                    [topo_code] => 3
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 47
                    [parent_da_code] => 0
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 13841
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => 
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-06-10 12:54:08
                    [modified] => 2009-05-06 19:14:25
                    [modified_by] => 2
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [100] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 380
                    [name] => Acalvaria
                    [description] => The calvaria (or calva, or skullcap) is the roof of the skull. It is formed by the following bones:
1-,rontal bone,  2-parietal bones (two), 3-temporal bones (two), 4-Occipital bone 
In a fetus, the formation of the calvaria involves a process known as intramembranous ossification, although the base of the skull (underlying the brain) develops through endochondral ossification.
Acalvaria is a rare malformation usually regarded as a postneurulation defect. It consists of absense of the calvarial bones, dura mater and associated muscles in the presence of a normal skull base and normal facial bones. The condition is frequenctly confused by prenatal ultrasonography with anencephaly or an encephalocele. Whereas the cerebral hemispheres are absent in anencephaly, the cranial contents in acalvaria are generally complete, though some neuropathological abnormality is often present. The presumed pathogenesis of acalvaria is faulty migration of the membranous neurocranium with normal placement of the embryonic ectoderm, resulting in absence of the calvaria but an intact layer of skin over the brain parenchyma.

Acrania is a developmental abnormality characterized by a partial or complete absence of calvarium, with complete but abnormal development of brain tissue. Meroacrania refers to absence of the cranium with the exception of the occipital bone. Meroanencephaly is a form of anencephaly with rudimentary brain and cranium.
                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 46
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 44
                    [parent_da_code] => 669
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 13553
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => Q00.0 
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-06-10 14:30:25
                    [modified] => 2009-01-07 14:01:59
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [101] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 384
                    [name] => Anophtalmos, unilateral
                    [description] => 
                    [author_id] => 2
                    [topo_code] => 50
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 51
                    [parent_da_code] => 799
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => Q11.1
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => D000853
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-06-10 14:38:11
                    [modified] => 2009-01-07 17:17:05
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [102] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 386
                    [name] => Wide space between 1st and 2nd toes, unilateral
                    [description] => 
                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 12
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 9
                    [parent_da_code] => 818
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => 
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-06-10 14:42:08
                    [modified] => 2008-12-17 20:47:56
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [103] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 394
                    [name] => Amyelencephaly
                    [description] => Amyelencephaly is the absence of both the brain and spinal cord. 
                    [author_id] => 2
                    [topo_code] => 46
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 50
                    [parent_da_code] => 35
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 13848
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => Q00.0
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-06-13 02:23:38
                    [modified] => 2009-01-07 16:52:51
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [104] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 400
                    [name] => Corpus callosum malformations
                    [description] => 
                    [author_id] => 2
                    [topo_code] => 61
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 12
                    [parent_da_code] => 0
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => Q04.0
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-06-13 02:53:14
                    [modified] => 2009-01-05 16:56:34
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [105] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 407
                    [name] => Cerebral cyst
                    [description] =>  The cysts located along the cerebral convexity and in the spinal cord are mostly arachnoid, whereas cysts found in the supracollicular or retrocerebellar region may be either arachnoid or glioependymal cysts.
Cystic lesions localized within the arachnoid membrane may be classified according to the location along the neural axis or by the histologic composition of the cyst wall, which is either arachnoid connective tissue or glioependymal tissue. Distribution of these 2 types of cysts differs along the neural axis. 


                    [author_id] => 2
                    [topo_code] => 61
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 12
                    [parent_da_code] => 876
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => Q04.6
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-06-13 03:04:06
                    [modified] => 2009-01-02 20:35:05
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [106] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 413
                    [name] => Amyelia
                    [description] => Amyelia is the congenital absence of the spinal cord.
                    [author_id] => 2
                    [topo_code] => 65
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 15
                    [parent_da_code] => 855
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => Q06.0
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-06-14 19:47:39
                    [modified] => 2009-01-07 16:56:30
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [107] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 415
                    [name] => Dysplasia of spinal cord
                    [description] =>  In Dysplasia of spinal cord, the spinal cord lacked the posterior median fissure and gray matter; only a few neurons were present in the anterior and lateral gray columns.
                    [author_id] => 2
                    [topo_code] => 65
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 15
                    [parent_da_code] => 855
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => Q06.1
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-06-14 20:00:17
                    [modified] => 2009-01-02 19:29:34
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [108] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 428
                    [name] => Meckel diverticulum
                    [description] => Meckel's diverticulum is a vestigial remnant of the omphalomesenteric duct (also called the vitelline duct), and is the most frequent malformation of the gastrointestinal tract. It is is located in the distal ileum, usually within about 60-100 cm of the ileocecal valve.
                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 16
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 27
                    [parent_da_code] => 0
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 155140
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => C17.3 
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => med/2797
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 7903
                    [mesh_ref] => D008467
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-06-23 17:30:44
                    [modified] => 2008-12-05 18:28:48
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [109] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 429
                    [name] => Cubital deviation of the hand, bilateral
                    [description] => 
                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 33
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 9
                    [parent_da_code] => 879
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => 
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-06-23 17:39:51
                    [modified] => 2009-01-05 17:26:12
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [110] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 431
                    [name] => Obstetrician's hand
                    [description] =>  
The position of the hand with extension at the metacarpophalangeal and the interphalangeal joints, and adduction of the thumb. 
Most common 2,3,4 joined 1,5 separate ...

                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 77
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 9
                    [parent_da_code] => 840
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => 
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-06-23 18:39:54
                    [modified] => 2008-12-21 17:14:14
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [111] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 779
                    [name] => Absence of neuron differentiation in the basal nuclei.
                    [description] => The basal ganglia (or basal nuclei) are a group of nuclei in the brain interconnected with the cerebral cortex, thalamus and brainstem. Mammalian basal ganglia are associated with a variety of functions: motor control, cognition, emotions, and learning. In modern use the term 'ganglia' is in this instance considered a misnomer; 'ganglion' refers to concentrations of neural nuclei in the periphery only (for example those of the autonomic nervous system), and the term 'basal nuclei' is preferred.
Neuron differentiation in the basal ganglia is the process whereby a neuroblast acquires the specialized structural and functional features  in the basal ganglia. 
                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 61
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 12
                    [parent_da_code] => 0
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => 
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-10-23 12:55:29
                    [modified] => 2009-01-06 20:08:37
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [112] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 435
                    [name] => Congenital Hepatic Fibrosis,
                    [description] => Congenital hepatic fibrosis is an inherited fibrocystic liver disease associated with proliferation of interlobular bile ducts within the portal areas and fibrosis that do not alter hepatic lobular architecture. The fibrosis would affect resistance in portal veins leading to portal hypertension
                    [author_id] => 2
                    [topo_code] => 0
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 0
                    [parent_da_code] => 0
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 8684
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => Q44.6 
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-07-17 18:29:42
                    [modified] => 2008-08-15 15:25:29
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [113] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 436
                    [name] => Cloverleaf skull
                    [description] => Cloverleaf skull or kleeblattschadel is a rare malformation caused by synostosis of all cranial sutures  except the metopic and squamosal sutures, giving the head a cloverleaf appearance . It can be associated with hydrocephalus, proptosis, and hypoplasia of the midface and cranial base
                    [author_id] => 2
                    [topo_code] => 46
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 44
                    [parent_da_code] => 880
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => 
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-07-18 19:45:23
                    [modified] => 2009-01-05 20:18:48
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [114] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 440
                    [name] => Abnormal vertebral segmentation
                    [description] => Unsegmented bar, is a failure of the normal separation of the individual building blocks of the spine. 
Abnormal vertebral segmentation (AVS) is a relatively common congenital malformation,associated with multiple vertebral and rib anomalies and scoliosis
                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 64
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 44
                    [parent_da_code] => 0
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => Q76.3 
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-07-21 16:32:50
                    [modified] => 2009-01-06 14:47:16
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [115] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 441
                    [name] => Bifid rib
                    [description] => A bifid rib or bifurcated rib or sternum bifidum is a congenital abnormality  occuring when the sternal end of the rib is cleaved into two. It is usually unilateral.
                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 3
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 44
                    [parent_da_code] => 0
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => Q76.7
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-07-21 18:13:25
                    [modified] => 2009-01-05 20:46:44
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [116] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 444
                    [name] => Clindodactyly of 5th finger, unilateral
                    [description] => Radio-volar deviation of little finger distal phalanx.

                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 34
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 9
                    [parent_da_code] => 0
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => 
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-07-21 22:04:46
                    [modified] => 2008-12-04 16:12:25
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [117] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 450
                    [name] => Beaked midbrain
                    [description] => Partial or complete fusion of the corpora quadrogemina into a tectal beak or spur and invagination of the midline cerebellum to receive this beak(spur).It is usually seen in Chiari type II
                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 62
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 13
                    [parent_da_code] => 62
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => 
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-07-23 21:35:18
                    [modified] => 2009-05-04 17:31:33
                    [modified_by] => 2
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [118] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 460
                    [name] => Multiple pterygium
                    [description] =>  Abnormally multiple fairly thick skin (pterygium) of chin to sternum, cervical, axillary popliteal, crural, antecubital,etc....
                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 0
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 61
                    [parent_da_code] => 0
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => 
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-07-24 21:59:56
                    [modified] => 2008-12-22 17:20:02
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [119] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 466
                    [name] => Periventricular heterotopia (PH)
                    [description] => Periventricular heterotopia (PH) represents a neuronal migration disorder that results in gray matter nodules along the lateral ventricles beneath an otherwise normal appearing cortex. While prior reports have shown that mutations in the filamin A (FLNA) gene can cause X-linked dominant PH, an increasing number of studies suggest the existence of additional PH syndromes. Further classification of these cortical malformation syndromes associated with PH allows for determination of the causal genes.


                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 61
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 12
                    [parent_da_code] => 0
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => 
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-07-25 19:03:15
                    [modified] => 2008-12-15 14:55:24
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [120] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 474
                    [name] => Ductus arteriosus dilatation
                    [description] =>  Aneurysm of the ductus arteriosus is a rare congenital heart malformation in which prompt surgical intervention required for the patient's survival. Differential diagnosis of an intrathoracic mass should include a congenital ductus arteriosus aneurysm.
                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 11
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 46
                    [parent_da_code] => 865
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
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                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-07-28 15:27:54
                    [modified] => 2009-01-02 18:52:36
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [121] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 475
                    [name] => Polydactyly, hand
                    [description] => 
                    [author_id] => 2
                    [topo_code] => 33
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 9
                    [parent_da_code] => 810
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => 
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-07-28 16:26:10
                    [modified] => 2008-12-29 14:08:54
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [122] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 479
                    [name] => Encephalocele, parietal
                    [description] => Parietal encephaloceles comprising approximately 10% of all encephalocoeles. They are usually situated near the anterior or posterior fontanelle. It is important to see the relationship of the sagittal sinus to the encephalocoele as it may be incorporated into the encephalocoele and make surgery potentially hazardous.
Parietal encephaloceles  are associated with a high incidence of associated congenital anomalies, including Dandy Walker malformation, Walker Warburg syndrome, callosal dysgenesis, Chiari II malformation and holoprosencephaly. A number of these encephalocoeles may be atretic and consist of a small defect in the skull vault with a 5-15 mm hairless mass near the vertex.
                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 61
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 12
                    [parent_da_code] => 148
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => Q01.8
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-07-28 18:21:59
                    [modified] => 2008-12-30 16:53:23
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [123] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 481
                    [name] => Neuroepithelial cysts of the third ventricule,congenital
                    [description] => Third ventricular cysts are rare congenital malformations of arachnoidal, endodermal, or neuroepithelial origin.Neuroepithelial cysts include choroid plexus and ependymal cysts .
                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 61
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 12
                    [parent_da_code] => 0
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => Q04.6 
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-07-28 18:35:57
                    [modified] => 2008-12-22 14:18:53
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [124] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 790
                    [name] => Hypodactyly, hand, unilateral
                    [description] => 
                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 34
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 9
                    [parent_da_code] => 859
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => 
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-10-27 18:57:46
                    [modified] => 2008-12-29 15:40:07
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [125] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 860
                    [name] => Hypoplasia and dysplasia of the kidney
                    [description] => Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) include renal agenesis (absent kidneys), dysplasia (undifferentiated and metaplastic tissues) and hypoplasia (too few nephrons). In several multiorgan syndromes featuring CAKUT, mutations of genes expressed in renal tract development have been defined. 
                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 41
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 32
                    [parent_da_code] => 857
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
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                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-12-29 15:48:52
                    [modified] => 2008-12-29 15:59:19
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [126] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 485
                    [name] => Renal focal cystic dilatation of collecting tubules
                    [description] => Associated with chromosomal anomalies
                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 41
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 32
                    [parent_da_code] => 850
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => 
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-08-05 19:14:57
                    [modified] => 2008-12-22 17:49:44
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [127] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 486
                    [name] => Micromulticystic kidneys
                    [description] => uaually seen in trisomies
                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 41
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 32
                    [parent_da_code] => 850
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => 
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-08-05 19:18:31
                    [modified] => 2008-12-22 19:05:54
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [128] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 492
                    [name] => Bicuspid pulmonary valve
                    [description] => Congenitally bicuspid pulmonary valves are uncommon. When they occur, it is usually in association with other congenital cardiac lesions, most often a tetralogy of Fallot.
                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 11
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 46
                    [parent_da_code] => 0
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => 
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-08-05 20:47:45
                    [modified] => 2008-12-17 17:10:15
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [129] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 495
                    [name] => Brainstem asymmetry
                    [description] => 
                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 63
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 14
                    [parent_da_code] => 0
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => 
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-08-06 13:28:26
                    [modified] => 2009-01-05 19:36:00
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [130] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 496
                    [name] => Dentate nucleus malformation
                    [description] => The Dentate nucleus is located within the deep white matter of each cerebellar hemisphere. It is the largest of the four deep cerebellar nuclei, the others being the fastigial nucleus and the interposed nucleus (globose and emboliform nuclei combined). It is responsible for the planning, initiation and control of volitional movements. It therefore receives its afferents from the premotor cortex and the supplementary motor cortex (via the pontocerebellar system). Its efferents project via the superior cerebellar peduncle through the red nucleus to the ventrolateral thalamus (crossing over at the pontomesencephalic junction).

It consists of an irregularly folded lamina, of a grayish-yellow color, containing white fibers, and presenting on its antero-medial aspect an opening, the hilus, from which most of the fibers of the superior peduncle.
 Malformation of the dentate nucleus usually associated with hypoplasia ponto-neocerebellaris (pontoneocerebellar hypoplasia).
                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 62
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 13
                    [parent_da_code] => 202
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => 
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
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                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-08-06 13:37:13
                    [modified] => 2009-01-02 14:13:22
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [131] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 498
                    [name] => Abnormal formation of the cerebellar gyri
                    [description] => Abnormal formation of the cerebellar gyri and/or dentate nuclei.
The hemispheres are preferentially affected.
                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 62
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 13
                    [parent_da_code] => 151
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => 
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-08-06 13:44:27
                    [modified] => 2009-01-06 14:42:22
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [132] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 504
                    [name] => Common atrium
                    [description] => Common (or single) atrium is a failure of development of the embryologic components that contribute to the atrial septal complex.
                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 11
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 46
                    [parent_da_code] => 865
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => 
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-08-06 16:46:44
                    [modified] => 2009-01-05 14:45:32
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [133] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 506
                    [name] => Exencephaly
                    [description] => Exencephaly is a type of cephalic disorder where parts of the skull bones are missing causing the brain to protrude. . This condition is usually found in embryos as an early stage of anencephaly.
                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 46
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 50
                    [parent_da_code] => 0
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => 
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-08-06 18:38:12
                    [modified] => 2008-12-04 16:28:54
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [134] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 558
                    [name] => Pterygium colli
                    [description] => A webbed neck, or pterygium colli deformity, is a congenital skin fold that runs along the sides of the neck down to the shoulders.
                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 7
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 61
                    [parent_da_code] => 0
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => Q18.3
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-08-15 13:27:32
                    [modified] => 2008-12-17 21:10:52
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [135] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 515
                    [name] => fallopian tube dysgenesis
                    [description] =>  Part of maldevelopment of the Müllerian duct system
                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 18
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 40
                    [parent_da_code] => 864
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => Q50.6
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-08-07 13:11:19
                    [modified] => 2008-12-30 14:31:08
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [136] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 518
                    [name] => Ureteral duplication, complete, unilateral
                    [description] => Ureteral duplication is the most common renal abnormality. Incomplete ureteral duplication, in which one common ureter enters the bladder, is rarely clinically significance. Alternatively, complete ureteral duplication, in which 2 ureters ipsilaterally enter the bladder, has a propensity for vesicoureteral reflux into the lower pole and obstruction of the upper pole, which can be problematic.


                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 43
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 33
                    [parent_da_code] => 822
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => 
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-08-07 15:33:41
                    [modified] => 2008-12-18 14:28:08
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [137] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 521
                    [name] => Fibular Hemimelia:
                    [description] => Fibular Hemimelia is partial or total absence of fibula which is most often is unilateral. A primary feature of fibular hemimelia is the fibular abnormality. This may range from a minimal shortening of the fibula to its complete absence.
Although a number of causes have been suggested for postaxial hypoplasia of the lower extremity (fibular hemimelia), recent theory postulates that interference with limb-bud development plays an important role. Widespread pathology throughout the limb has been noted, even in mild cases of fibular deficiency.8 During the fetal period, the fibular field of the limb bud controls development of the proximal femur, explaining the frequent association of femoral abnormalities. Other associated abnormalities of the knee, leg, ankle, and foot also are related to the fibular field of the lower limb bud.9, 10, 11 Therefore, postaxial hypoplasia of the lower extremity is a descriptive term that encompasses this constellation of abnormalities. 

                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 25
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 44
                    [parent_da_code] => 230
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => Q72.6 
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-08-07 19:47:59
                    [modified] => 2008-12-30 15:28:56
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [138] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 522
                    [name] => Hydronephrosis, congenital, unilateral
                    [description] => 
                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 41
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 32
                    [parent_da_code] => 856
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => 
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-08-07 20:29:23
                    [modified] => 2008-12-29 15:01:21
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [139] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 525
                    [name] => Polymicrogyria, focal
                    [description] => Polymicrogyria (PMG) is a developmental malformation of the human brain characterized by an excessive number of small convolutions (gyri) on the surface of the brain. Either the whole surface or parts of the surface can be affected
                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 61
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 12
                    [parent_da_code] => 0
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => Q04.3
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-08-07 21:43:47
                    [modified] => 2008-12-15 14:56:36
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [140] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 526
                    [name] => Deep gray nuclear malformations(the caudate nuclei, thalami,..)
                    [description] => usually associated with Holoprosencephaly
                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 61
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 50
                    [parent_da_code] => 376
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => 
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-08-08 12:55:39
                    [modified] => 2008-12-31 18:30:31
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [141] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 528
                    [name] => Glial heterotopia, multi-focal
                    [description] => Glial heterotopia is defined as nests or linear arrays of glioneuronal tissue in the meninges associated with congenital anomalies, particularly those of the central nervous system. 
                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 61
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 50
                    [parent_da_code] => 0
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => 
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-08-08 13:13:20
                    [modified] => 2008-12-15 15:11:50
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [142] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 530
                    [name] => Meroanencephaly
                    [description] => Meroanencephaly is a rare form of anencephaly characterized by malformed cranial bones and a median cranial defect, through which protrudes abnormal tissue, called the area cerebrovasculosa. Area cerebrovasculosa denotes abnormal spongy, vascular tissue admixed with glial tissue ranging from a thin membrane to a large pseudoencephalic mass simulating cerebral tissue, that is composed of connective tissue, hemorrhagic vascular channels, glial nodules, and disorganized choroid plexuses.
                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 0
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 0
                    [parent_da_code] => 0
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => 
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-08-08 15:27:24
                    [modified] => 2008-08-08 15:27:24
                    [modified_by] => 
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [143] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 531
                    [name] => Congenitally Corrected Transposition of the Great Arteries
                    [description] => Corrected transposition of the great arteries (c-TGA) is a complex and unusual abnormality. In this fascinating cardiac malformation of corrected transposition of the great arteries, the left atrium is connected to a right ventricle, from which an aorta arises. Hence, 2 discordant connections occur in sequence resulting in a condition in which the circulation of blood through the body is "correct." 

                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 0
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 0
                    [parent_da_code] => 0
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => 
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-08-08 16:00:39
                    [modified] => 2008-08-08 16:53:35
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [144] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 535
                    [name] => Syndactyly of the feet , simple (webbed), unilateral
                    [description] => 
                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 72
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 61
                    [parent_da_code] => 828
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 
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                    [created] => 2008-08-12 14:09:43
                    [modified] => 2008-12-19 17:10:59
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [145] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 536
                    [name] => Abnormally aligned ribs
                    [description] => Abnormally aligned ribs usually associated with abnormal vertebral segmentation (AVS).
                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 3
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 44
                    [parent_da_code] => 0
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                    [created] => 2008-08-12 14:31:42
                    [modified] => 2009-01-06 16:09:47
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [146] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 538
                    [name] => Prominent and pointed nose
                    [description] => 
                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 74
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 63
                    [parent_da_code] => 0
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                    [created] => 2008-08-12 16:10:07
                    [modified] => 2008-12-11 19:49:01
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [147] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 539
                    [name] => Transposition of the Great Arteries
                    [description] => In transposition of the great arteries, the aorta and pulmonary artery are reversed. The aorta receives the oxygen-poor blood from the right ventricle, but it's carried back to the body without receiving more oxygen. Likewise, the pulmonary artery receives the oxygen-rich blood from the left ventricle but carries it back to the lungs. 
                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 52
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 10
                    [parent_da_code] => 865
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                    [created] => 2008-08-12 17:31:27
                    [modified] => 2009-01-02 14:24:16
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [148] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 546
                    [name] => Googly eyes
                    [description] => Googly eyes  are large, bulging  eyes
                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 50
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 51
                    [parent_da_code] => 139
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                    [created] => 2008-08-12 20:20:22
                    [modified] => 2008-12-29 20:00:42
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [149] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 549
                    [name] => Esophageal duplication cyst
                    [description] =>  Esophageal duplication cyst is an embryologic duplication of a portion of the muscle and submucosa of the esophagus without epithelial duplication.    These cysts are thought to develop because of a failure of vacuolization of a solid esophagus during embryologic development. Esophageal duplication cysts may occur separate from the esophagus, in continuity with the esophagus, or within the esophageal wall. 
The esophageal duplication cyst represents one of the two most common types of bronchopulmonary foregut malformations.The bronchogenic-type cyst occurs more frequently and is usually located in the mediastinum around the tracheobronchial tree, whereas esophageal duplication cysts are most frequently located in the right posterior inferior mediastinum.




                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 14
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 21
                    [parent_da_code] => 867
                    [adicap_ref] => 
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                    [ICD10_ref] => Q39.8 
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                    [created] => 2008-08-13 15:44:48
                    [modified] => 2008-12-31 17:53:49
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [150] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 550
                    [name] => Esophageal duplication,tubular form
                    [description] => Esophageal duplication is a rare congenital disorder.Of all esophageal duplications, the cystic form is far more common than the tubular form.
                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 14
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 21
                    [parent_da_code] => 867
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                    [created] => 2008-08-13 15:51:26
                    [modified] => 2008-12-31 17:55:04
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [151] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 559
                    [name] => Autosomal Recessive Polycystic Kidney Disease
                    [description] => Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD) is the most common heritable cystic renal disease occurring in infancy and childhood ( type 1 Potter classification). It is distinct from autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), which tends to occur in an older population. The clinical spectrum shows a wide variability, ranging from perinatal death to a milder progressive form, which may not be diagnosed until adolescence. Despite the clinical variability of ARPKD, it appears that a single unidentified gene is responsible for all forms of the disease. Linkage studies have localized an area on chromosome 6 (PKHD1) as the genetic locus. The frequency of the heterozygous state is estimated to be one in 70. The PKHD1 gene is expressed at high levels in the fetal and adult kidney and at lower levels in the liver, which corresponds to the principle sites of disease.
Liver disease is present in every patient with ARPKD, with the manifestations varying according to the patient's age at presentation. The chief pathologic hallmarks of liver disease are periportal fibrosis and biliary duct ectasia. Significant liver involvement is referred to as congenital hepatic fibrosis. 

                    [author_id] => 3
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                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 32
                    [parent_da_code] => 850
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                    [omim_ref] => 263200
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                    [created] => 2008-08-15 15:18:28
                    [modified] => 2009-01-07 19:23:25
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
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                )

            [152] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 565
                    [name] => Wide space between 2nd and third toes,unilateral
                    [description] => 
                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 72
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 9
                    [parent_da_code] => 819
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                    [created] => 2008-08-15 16:14:49
                    [modified] => 2008-12-17 20:52:32
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [153] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 569
                    [name] => Amelia of the upper limb, unilateral
                    [description] => 
                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 10
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 9
                    [parent_da_code] => 69
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                    [created] => 2008-08-15 20:45:47
                    [modified] => 2009-01-07 16:46:18
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
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                )

            [154] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 573
                    [name] => Brachydactyly of the toes
                    [description] =>  Abnormally short toes
                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 72
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 9
                    [parent_da_code] => 751
                    [adicap_ref] => 
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                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-08-18 14:36:03
                    [modified] => 2009-01-05 20:03:14
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [155] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 574
                    [name] => Ovotestis
                    [description] => Ovotestis refers to the histology of a gonad that contains both ovarian follicles and testicular tubular elements. Ovotestes are the most frequent gonad present in true hermaphroditism (60%), followed by the ovary and then the testis. The ovotestis tends to be anatomically located in an ovarian position, 
                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 18
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 56
                    [parent_da_code] => 0
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                    [created] => 2008-08-18 19:01:39
                    [modified] => 2008-12-22 13:45:08
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [156] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 576
                    [name] => Lissencephaly, Type II
                    [description] => Type II, or "cobblestone" lissencephaly, is characterized by a bumpy appearance of the abnormal surface of the brain. The cortex in Type II lissencephaly is completely abnormal and there are no distinguishable layers. This subtype tends to be associated with genetic syndromes affecting muscles, as in the Walker-Warburg syndrome. 
                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 61
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 12
                    [parent_da_code] => 401
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                    [created] => 2008-08-19 13:25:18
                    [modified] => 2008-12-22 19:20:24
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [157] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 577
                    [name] => Lissencephaly, Type I
                    [description] => Type I, also known as classical lissencephaly, is distinguished by the smooth surface of the cerebral cortex and an abnormal four-layered cortex. Classical lissencephaly can be associated with abnormalities of the rest of the brain, including malformation of the corpus callosum or cerebellum. Lissencephaly can also be associated with other developmental abnormalities such as facial deformities in a syndrome known as the Miller-Dieker syndrome. 
                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 61
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 12
                    [parent_da_code] => 401
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                    [created] => 2008-08-19 13:30:39
                    [modified] => 2008-12-22 19:19:12
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [158] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 578
                    [name] => Brachycephaly
                    [description] => Brachycephaly refers to the condition where the head is disproportionately wide, resulting from early closure of the coronal sutures (i.e., craniosynostosis). Brachycephaly is also present in many syndromal abnormalities, such as Apert, Crouzon, Pfeiffer, Saethre-Chotzen and Carpenters syndromes
                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 46
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 44
                    [parent_da_code] => 880
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                    [created] => 2008-08-19 13:57:06
                    [modified] => 2009-01-05 20:09:40
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [159] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 585
                    [name] => Camptodactyly, unilateral
                    [description] => 
                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 34
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 45
                    [parent_da_code] => 875
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                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-08-19 17:23:44
                    [modified] => 2009-01-02 19:45:16
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [160] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 587
                    [name] => Congenital Muscular Torticollis, Fetal
                    [description] =>  Fetal congenital muscular torticollis occurs because of a defect in the development of the sternocleidomastoid muscle, or because of an abnormal fetal position in the uterus.
 Sternocleidomastoid tumor of infancy (SCMTI), also known as fibromatosis colli or muscular torticollis, is the most common cause of congenital torticollis.
Up to 20% of children with congenital muscular torticollis have congenital dysplasia of the hip as well.


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                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 43
                    [parent_da_code] => 37
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                    [created] => 2008-08-19 18:18:07
                    [modified] => 2008-12-30 15:08:24
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [161] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 591
                    [name] => Complex hemivertebral pattern
                    [description] => Complex hemivertebral pattern involving with hemivertebra at multiple levels or a hemivertebra coupled with a failure of segmentation.

                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 64
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 44
                    [parent_da_code] => 590
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                    [created] => 2008-08-19 20:27:58
                    [modified] => 2009-01-05 15:30:17
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [162] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 597
                    [name] => Amelia of the upper limbs, bilateral
                    [description] => 
                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 10
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 9
                    [parent_da_code] => 69
                    [adicap_ref] => 
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                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-08-21 12:32:51
                    [modified] => 2009-01-07 16:47:41
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [163] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 602
                    [name] => Renal lobulation, fetal
                    [description] => Embryologically, the kidney develops in several lobules. Incomplete fusion of these lobules can persist postnatally and even into adult life. This fetal lobulation is recognized on intravenous urography as smooth regular indentations in the renal contour, without parenchymal thinning or abnormalities in the underlying calyx.
                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 41
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 32
                    [parent_da_code] => 0
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                    [created] => 2008-08-21 18:35:59
                    [modified] => 2008-12-30 15:14:13
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [164] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 604
                    [name] => Forearm Meromelia, unilateral
                    [description] => 
                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 31
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 44
                    [parent_da_code] => 603
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => 
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                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-08-21 19:26:46
                    [modified] => 2008-12-30 16:07:37
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [165] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 606
                    [name] => Duplication of the intestinal tract
                    [description] => Duplication of the intestinal tract is  a group of congenital anomalies that have three characteristics: 
Firstly, they have a well developed coat of smooth muscle; 
Secondly, their epithelial lining represents some part of the alimentary tract and Thirdly, they are attached to some part of the alimentary tract. 
Duplications are either cystic or tubular in shape.  

                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 71
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 4
                    [parent_da_code] => 0
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                    [created] => 2008-08-21 19:46:00
                    [modified] => 2009-01-02 19:10:07
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [166] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 607
                    [name] => Hypoplasia and dysplasia of the kidney, bilateral
                    [description] => 
                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 41
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 32
                    [parent_da_code] => 860
                    [adicap_ref] => 
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                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-08-22 12:44:44
                    [modified] => 2008-12-29 16:02:22
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [167] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 610
                    [name] => Rib fusions
                    [description] => Rib fusions are part of hypoplastic thorax and spinal deformity associated with combined congenital scoliosis. 
                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 9
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 44
                    [parent_da_code] => 170
                    [adicap_ref] => 
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                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-08-22 19:09:55
                    [modified] => 2008-12-23 15:35:25
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [168] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 614
                    [name] => Medullary Cystic Kidney Disease/Nephronophthisis
                    [description] => Medullary cystic kidney disease (MCKD) is a hereditary disorder with cysts in the middle (medulla) of the kidney and no dysplasia.
Medullary cystic kidney disease (MCKD) is very similar to the childhood disease familial juvenile nephronophthisis (NPH). Both lead to scarring of the kidney and formation of fluid-filled cavities (cysts) in the deeper parts of the kidney.In these conditions, the kidneys don't concentrate the urine enough, leading to excessive urine production and loss of sodium.
MCKD occurs in older patients and is inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern. NPH occurs in young children and is usually due to autosomal recessive inheritance.

 
                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 41
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 32
                    [parent_da_code] => 850
                    [adicap_ref] => 
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                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-08-25 14:03:50
                    [modified] => 2008-12-22 19:04:16
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [169] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 616
                    [name] => Narrow palate
                    [description] => A narrow palate; front of the palate (the pre-maxillae) being pulled forward),
leading to bilateral posterior cross-bite and traumatic bite. There is an anterior open-bite with no anterior tooth function. 
                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 47
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 9
                    [parent_da_code] => 55
                    [adicap_ref] => 
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                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
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                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
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                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-08-25 20:12:24
                    [modified] => 2008-12-22 13:58:13
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [170] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 623
                    [name] => Unilobate lung, bilateral
                    [description] => 
                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 9
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 20
                    [parent_da_code] => 0
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => 
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                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-08-26 16:58:36
                    [modified] => 2008-12-03 19:07:06
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [171] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 625
                    [name] => Diaphragmatic hernia,unilateral
                    [description] => The 3 basic types of CDH include the posterolateral Bochdalek hernia (occurring at approximately 6 weeks' gestation), the anterior Morgagni hernia, and the hiatus hernia. The left-sided Bochdalek hernia occurs in approximately 85% of cases. Left-sided hernias allow herniation of both the small and large bowel and intraabdominal solid organs into the thoracic cavity. In right-sided hernias (13% of cases), only the liver and a portion of the large bowel tend to herniate. Bilateral hernias are uncommon and usually fatal.

                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 8
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 3
                    [parent_da_code] => 184
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => 
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-08-26 19:52:52
                    [modified] => 2009-01-02 15:07:42
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [172] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 632
                    [name] => Renal ectopia, simple
                    [description] => In simple ectopia,the kidney and ureter are displaced but remain epislateral. 
                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 41
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 32
                    [parent_da_code] => 788
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => 
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                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-08-27 17:39:22
                    [modified] => 2008-12-19 19:42:35
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [173] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 662
                    [name] => Thumb hypoplasia,unilateral
                    [description] => 
                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 77
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 44
                    [parent_da_code] => 812
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => 
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-09-03 14:56:59
                    [modified] => 2008-12-17 19:50:11
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [174] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 664
                    [name] => dextro-Transposition of the great arteries
                    [description] => dextro-Transposition of the great arteries , sometimes also referred to as complete transposition of the great arteries, is a cyanotic congenital heart defect (CHD) in which the primary arteries (the aorta and the pulmonary artery) are transposed.In segmental analysis, this condition is described as ventriculoarterial discordance with atrioventricular concordance, or just ventriculoarterial discordance. d-TGA is often referred to simply as transposition of the great arteries (TGA); however, TGA is a more general term which may also refer to levo-transposition of the great arteries (l-TGA).
Another term commonly used to refer to both d-TGA and l-TGA is transposition of the great vessels (TGV), although this term might have an even broader meaning than TGA.When no other heart defects are present it is called 'simple' d-TGA; when other defects are present it is called 'complex' d-TGA.




                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 52
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 10
                    [parent_da_code] => 539
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => Q20.3
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-09-03 20:53:45
                    [modified] => 2009-01-02 14:16:33
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [175] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 666
                    [name] => Communicating hydrocephalus
                    [description] => Communicating hydrocephalus, also known as non-obstructive hydrocephalus, is caused by impaired cerebrospinal fluid resorption in the absence of any CSF-flow obstruction. It has been theorized that this is due to functional impairment of the arachnoid granulations, which are located along the superior sagittal sinus and is the site of cerebrospinal fluid resorption back into the venous system. Various neurologic conditions may result in communicating hydrocephalus, including subarachnoid/intraventricular hemorrhage, meningitis, Chiari malformation, and congenital absence of arachnoidal granulations (Pacchioni's granulations).

Normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) is a particular form of communicating hydrocephalus, characterized by enlarged cerebral ventricles, with only intermittently elevated cerebrospinal fluid pressure. 
Hydrocephalus ex vacuo also refers to an enlargement of cerebral ventricles and subarachnoid spaces, and is usually due to brain atrophy (as it occurs in dementias), post-traumatic brain injuries and even in some psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia. As opposed to hydrocephalus, this is a compensatory enlargement of the CSF-spaces in response to brain parenchyma loss - it is not the result of increased CSF pressure. 
 
                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 61
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 12
                    [parent_da_code] => 66
                    [adicap_ref] => 
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                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-09-04 13:42:56
                    [modified] => 2009-01-05 14:54:46
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [176] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 673
                    [name] => Thumb malformation & mal-implanted
                    [description] => 
                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 77
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 9
                    [parent_da_code] => 0
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => 
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
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                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-09-08 17:42:33
                    [modified] => 2008-12-17 15:47:57
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [177] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 675
                    [name] => Wide space between 1st and 2nd fingers, unilateral
                    [description] => 
                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 10
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 9
                    [parent_da_code] => 816
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => 
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-09-08 19:09:57
                    [modified] => 2008-12-17 20:39:05
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [178] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 678
                    [name] => Single cerebral ventricule
                    [description] =>  Usually associated with holoprosencephaly.
                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 61
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 12
                    [parent_da_code] => 0
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => 
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-09-09 15:13:33
                    [modified] => 2008-12-19 17:17:38
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [179] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 714
                    [name] => Malpositioned thumb, bilateral
                    [description] => 
                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 77
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 9
                    [parent_da_code] => 0
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => 
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-09-19 14:26:11
                    [modified] => 2008-12-05 19:05:41
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [180] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 718
                    [name] => Abnormal canalicular pattern of pancreas
                    [description] => Associated with Ivemark's Renal-Hepatic-Pancreatic Dysplasia(OMIM 208540)
                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 38
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 76
                    [parent_da_code] => 0
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => 
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-09-23 14:21:56
                    [modified] => 2009-01-06 14:30:04
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [181] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 719
                    [name] => Syndactyly, simple (webbed),
                    [description] => In simple (webbed) syndactyly the connection can involve only soft tissue.
                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 0
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 61
                    [parent_da_code] => 829
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => 
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-09-24 15:25:06
                    [modified] => 2008-12-19 17:48:07
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [182] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 721
                    [name] => Polydactyly of the hand, postaxial, unilateral
                    [description] => 
                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 33
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 9
                    [parent_da_code] => 8
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => 
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-09-24 18:29:24
                    [modified] => 2008-12-17 19:11:32
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [183] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 722
                    [name] => Polydactyly of the foot, bilateral
                    [description] => Polydactyly is the most common congenital anomaly of the forefoot and most commonly refers to the presence of 6 toes on one foot, but more toes are possible. It most frequently occurs as an isolated trait with autosomal dominant inheritance and variable penetrance. Other patterns of inheritance, sporadic occurrence, and association with syndromes are also possible.
 Polydactyly may be associated with syndactyly.
                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 27
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 9
                    [parent_da_code] => 171
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => 
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
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                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-09-24 18:35:50
                    [modified] => 2008-12-17 19:20:37
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [184] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 788
                    [name] => Renal ectopia
                    [description] => Renal ectopia or ectopic kidney describes a kidney that is not located in its usual position. It results from the kidney failing to ascend from its origin in the true pelvis or from a superiorly ascended kidney located in the thorax.
Renal ectopia may be simple or crossed. 
In simple ectopia, the kidney and ureter are displaced but remain epislateral. In crossed ectopia both kidneys and proximal ureter are on the same side of the body. 

                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 41
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 32
                    [parent_da_code] => 0
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => Q 63.2
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-10-27 13:31:42
                    [modified] => 2008-12-19 19:51:48
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [185] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 789
                    [name] => Low implanted hair, forehead
                    [description] => Mostly associated with chromosomal abnormalities (Chromosomal syndromes) 
                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 6
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 61
                    [parent_da_code] => 0
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => 
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-10-27 17:36:11
                    [modified] => 2008-12-15 16:28:26
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [186] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 724
                    [name] => Wide space between 4th and 5th toes, unilateral
                    [description] => 
                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 72
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 9
                    [parent_da_code] => 820
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => 
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-09-25 14:43:50
                    [modified] => 2008-12-17 20:55:07
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [187] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 747
                    [name] => Syndactyly of the feet , simple (webbed), bilateral
                    [description] => 
                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 72
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 61
                    [parent_da_code] => 828
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => 
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-10-06 18:37:37
                    [modified] => 2008-12-19 17:14:10
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [188] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 748
                    [name] => Turned-up nose
                    [description] => 
                    [author_id] => 
                    [topo_code] => 74
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 63
                    [parent_da_code] => 0
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => 
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-10-06 18:43:06
                    [modified] => 2008-12-19 14:37:31
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [189] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 758
                    [name] => Hand clenching, fetal
                    [description] => Fixed fetal hand clenching usually seen in chromosomal abnormalities.
                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 33
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 9
                    [parent_da_code] => 0
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => 
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-10-16 18:44:49
                    [modified] => 2008-12-30 15:43:21
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [190] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 761
                    [name] => Scoliosis, dextroconvex, thoracic
                    [description] => Right thoracic Scoliosis indicates that the major scoliosis is concentrated in the thoracic (mid-back) region and curves to the right. In the right thoracic scoliosis there may also be a counter curve to the left in the lumbar (lower back) region, but this is a less severe curve.
                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 3
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 9
                    [parent_da_code] => 170
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => 
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-10-16 20:30:16
                    [modified] => 2009-01-02 14:36:25
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [191] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 762
                    [name] => Scoliosis, lumbar, left
                    [description] => Left lumbar Scoliosis indicates that the major curve is to the left and is concentrated in the lumbar region. There may be an opposite curve less extreme to the right in the thoracic region.

                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 64
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 9
                    [parent_da_code] => 170
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => 
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-10-16 20:31:35
                    [modified] => 2008-12-22 19:12:07
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [192] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 764
                    [name] => Intersex conditions
                    [description] => For convenience, intersex conditions traditionally have been divided into the following 5 simplified classifications based on the differentiation of the gonad:
Female pseudohermaphrodite - Two ovaries
Male pseudohermaphrodite - Two testes
True hermaphrodite - Ovary and/or testis and/or ovotestis
Mixed gonadal dysgenesis - Testis plus streak gonad
Pure gonadal dysgenesis - Bilateral streak gonads
(A streak gonad is dysgenetic and resembles ovarian stromal tissue. No germ cells are present.)

The internal ducts and external genitalia may vary in development, since the presence of apparently male or female gonads does not necessarily correlate with the patient's gender identity.


                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 80
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 56
                    [parent_da_code] => 72
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => 
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-10-16 20:40:18
                    [modified] => 2009-01-07 16:38:42
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [193] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 773
                    [name] => Cerebellar granular layer, absence  or hypogenesis of
                    [description] => During the early stages of embryonic development, the brain starts to form in three distinct segments: the prosencephalon, mesencephalon, and rhombencephalon. The rhombencephalon is the most caudal (toward the tail) segment of the embryonic brain; it is from this segment that the cerebellum develops. Along the embryonic rhombencephalic segment develop eight swellings, called rhombomeres. The cerebellum arises from two rhombomeres located in the alar plate of the neural tube, a structure that eventually forms the brain and spinal cord. The specific rhombomeres from which the cerebellum forms are rhombomere 1 (Rh.1) caudally (near the tail) and the "isthmus" rostrally (near the front).

Two primary regions are thought to give rise to the neurons that make up the cerebellum. 
1-The first region is the ventricular zone in the roof of the fourth ventricle. This area produces Purkinje cells and deep cerebellar nuclear neurons. These cells are the primary output neurons of the cerebellar cortex and cerebellum. 
2-The second germinal zone (cellular birthplace) is known as the Rhombic lip, neurons then move by embryonic week 27 to the external granular layer. This layer of cells—found on the exterior the cerebellum—produces the granule neurons. The granule neurons migrate from this exterior layer to form an inner layer known as the internal granule layer. The external granular layer ceases to exist in the mature cerebellum, leaving only granule cells in the internal granule layer.

The cerebellar white matter may be a third germinal zone in the cerebellum; however, its function as a germinal zone is controversial.


                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 62
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 13
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                    [created] => 2008-10-20 17:47:26
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            [194] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 774
                    [name] => Hydrocephalus, Non-communicating
                    [description] => Non-communicating hydrocephalus, or obstructive hydrocephalus, is caused by a CSF-flow obstruction (either due to external compression or intraventricular mass lesions).

Foramen of Monro obstruction may lead to dilation of one or, if large enough (e.g., in colloid cyst), both lateral ventricles. 
The aqueduct of Sylvius, normally narrow to begin with, may be obstructed by a number of genetically or acquired lesions (e.g., atresia, ependymitis, hemorrhage, tumor) and lead to dilatation of both lateral ventricles as well as the third ventricle. 
Fourth ventricle obstruction will lead to dilatation of the aqueduct as well as the lateral and third ventricles. 
The foramina of Luschka and foramen of Magendie may be obstructed due to congenital failure of opening (e.g., Dandy-Walker malformation). 
The subarachnoid space surrounding the brainstem may also be obstructed due to inflammatory or hemorrhagic fibrosing meningitis, leading to widespread dilatation, including the fourth ventricle. 

                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 61
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 50
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                    [created] => 2008-10-20 19:48:53
                    [modified] => 2008-12-15 20:14:14
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
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            [195] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 775
                    [name] => Scoliosis, thoracic, left
                    [description] => 
                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 64
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 9
                    [parent_da_code] => 170
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                    [created] => 2008-10-21 13:28:05
                    [modified] => 2008-12-22 19:14:44
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [196] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 781
                    [name] => Hypoplasia and dysplasia of the kidney, unilateral
                    [description] => 
                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 41
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 32
                    [parent_da_code] => 860
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                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-10-23 14:36:04
                    [modified] => 2008-12-29 15:58:07
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [197] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 783
                    [name] => Subcapsular renal cyst,
                    [description] =>  Associated with chromosomal abnormality
                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 41
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 32
                    [parent_da_code] => 850
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                    [created] => 2008-10-23 19:06:19
                    [modified] => 2008-12-22 17:48:54
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [198] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 816
                    [name] => Wide space between 1st and 2nd fingers
                    [description] => 
                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 34
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 61
                    [parent_da_code] => 815
                    [adicap_ref] => 
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                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-12-17 20:32:36
                    [modified] => 2008-12-17 20:36:02
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [199] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 818
                    [name] => Wide space between 1st and 2nd toes
                    [description] => 
                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 72
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 9
                    [parent_da_code] => 817
                    [adicap_ref] => 
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                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-12-17 20:43:59
                    [modified] => 2008-12-17 20:45:56
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [200] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 797
                    [name] => left carotid artery, aberrant
                    [description] => The common carotid artery is a paired structure, meaning that there are two in the body, one for each half. The left and right common carotid arteries follow the same course with the exception of their origin. The right common carotid originates in the neck from the brachiocephalic trunk. The left arises from the aortic arch in the thoracic region.
The left common carotid artery can be thought of as having two parts: a thoracic (chest) part and a cervical (neck) part. The right common carotid originates in or close to the neck, so it lacks a thoracic portion.
 The left and right common carotid arteries  may have two kinds of variations:
 1-Peculiarities as to origin
The right common carotid may arise above the level of the upper border of the sternoclavicular joint; this variation occurs in about 12 percent of cases.
In other cases the artery on the right side may arise as a separate branch from the arch of the aorta, or in conjunction with the left carotid.

 The left common carotid varies in its origin more than the right.
In the majority of abnormal cases it arises with the brachiocephalic trunk; if that artery is absent, the two carotids arise usually by a single trunk.
It is rarely joined with the left subclavian artery, except in cases of transposition of the aortic arch.

2- Peculiarities as to point of division
In the majority of abnormal cases, the bifurcation occurs higher than usual, the artery dividing opposite or even above the hyoid bone; more rarely, it occurs below, opposite the middle of the larynx, or the lower border of the cricoid cartilage. In at least one reported case, the artery was only 4 cm in length and divided at the root of the neck.
Very rarely, the common carotid artery ascends in the neck without any subdivision, either the external or the internal carotid being absent; and in a few cases the common carotid has itself been found to be absent, the external and internal carotids arising directly from the arch of the aorta.

This peculiarity existed on both sides in some instances, on one side in others


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                    [created] => 2008-11-03 18:37:55
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            [201] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 798
                    [name] => Hypospadias, Penoscrotal
                    [description] =>  In penoscrotal hypospadias, the urethral opening is at the junction of the penis and scrotum. 
                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 80
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 75
                    [parent_da_code] => 839
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                    [created] => 2008-11-03 20:38:50
                    [modified] => 2008-12-19 22:40:10
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [202] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 801
                    [name] => Brain stem displacement,(rostro caudal level)
                    [description] => 
                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 63
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 14
                    [parent_da_code] => 0
                    [adicap_ref] => 
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                    [created] => 2008-11-04 16:05:25
                    [modified] => 2009-01-05 19:46:03
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [203] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 802
                    [name] => Craniofacial dysmorphism
                    [description] => Malformation of the cranium and the low face. 




                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 47
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 0
                    [parent_da_code] => 0
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                    [humpath_ref] => 14868
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                    [created] => 2008-11-04 20:45:41
                    [modified] => 2009-05-04 19:04:07
                    [modified_by] => 2
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
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            [204] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 804
                    [name] => Nasal Clefts
                    [description] => Nasal Clefts are defined as the failure of frontal processes to develop appropriately or to merge with other facial processes results in various malformations.
Numerous facial cleft classification systems exist. They include DeMyer, Sedano, and Tessier classifications.
Nasal clefting may take the form of medial or lateral clefts. A rare entity, it often is associated with other congenital anomalies, or it constitutes manifestation of a syndrome, such as frontonasal dysplasia or Goldenhar-Gorlin syndrome, among others.
Nasal clefts can vary from simple groove to complete separation of either side of the nose (median cleft), or they can present as a large furrow involving the medial canthus and ipsilateral alum (lateral cleft).


                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 74
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 63
                    [parent_da_code] => 802
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                    [created] => 2008-11-05 14:18:21
                    [modified] => 2008-12-22 14:12:21
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
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            [205] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 829
                    [name] => Syndactyly
                    [description] => Syndactyly is an abnormal connection between adjacent digits,(fingers & toes) is described according to its extend. The connection can involve only soft tissue (simple=webbed) or includes bones(complex=fused). The second and third digits are the most frequently affected.

                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 0
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 9
                    [parent_da_code] => 0
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                    [created] => 2008-12-19 17:44:40
                    [modified] => 2008-12-19 17:47:02
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [206] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 831
                    [name] => Syndactyly of the fingers, complex
                    [description] => 
                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 34
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 44
                    [parent_da_code] => 830
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                    [created] => 2008-12-19 17:56:47
                    [modified] => 2008-12-19 18:00:22
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [207] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 864
                    [name] => Müllerian duct malformations
                    [description] => A uterine malformation is the result of an abnormal development of the Mullerian duct(s) during embryogenesis. Symptoms range from amenorrhea, infertility, recurrent pregnancy loss, and pain, to normal functioning depending on the nature of the defect.
The American Fertility Society (now American Society of Reproductive Medicine) Classification distinguishes:

Class I: Mullerian agenesis (absent uterus). 
Class II: Unicornuate uterus (a one-sided uterus). 
Class III: Uterus didelphys, also uterus didelphis (double uterus). 
Class IV: Bicornuate uterus (uterus with two horns).  
Class V: Septated uterus (uterine septum or partition). 
Class VI: DES uterus. 
The uterine cavity has a "T-shape" as a result of fetal exposure to diethylstilbestrol. 
An additional variation is the arcuate uterus where there is a concave dimple in the uterine fundus within the cavity.
A rudimentary uterus is a uterine remnant not connected to cervix and vagina and may be found on the other side of an unicornuate uterus.
Patients with uterine abnormalities may have associated renal abnormalities including unilateral renal agenesis




                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 20
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 41
                    [parent_da_code] => 863
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                    [created] => 2008-12-30 14:24:31
                    [modified] => 2009-01-06 17:23:08
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
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            [208] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 810
                    [name] => Polydactyly
                    [description] => Polydactyly is the most common congenital digital anomaly of the hand and foot. It may appear in isolation or in association with other birth defects. Isolated polydactyly is often autosomal dominant or occasionally random, while syndromic polydactyly is commonly autosomal recessive. Polydactyly should not be considered as a single mendelian trait but rather multifactorial. Early theories for polydactyly concerned disorders in the programmed cell death cycle of fetal limb development. Current theories focus on mutations in specific genetic locations that cause limb development to go awry.
                    [author_id] => 2
                    [topo_code] => 5
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 9
                    [parent_da_code] => 0
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                    [created] => 2008-12-17 18:39:15
                    [modified] => 2008-12-17 19:00:44
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
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            [209] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 819
                    [name] => Wide space between 2nd and third toes
                    [description] => 
                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 72
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 9
                    [parent_da_code] => 817
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                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-12-17 20:52:02
                    [modified] => 2008-12-17 20:52:02
                    [modified_by] => 
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [210] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 820
                    [name] => Wide space between 4th and 5th toes
                    [description] => 
                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 72
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 9
                    [parent_da_code] => 817
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                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-12-17 20:54:24
                    [modified] => 2008-12-17 20:54:24
                    [modified_by] => 
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [211] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 822
                    [name] => Ureteral duplication, complete
                    [description] => Ureteral duplication is the most common renal abnormality. Incomplete ureteral duplication, in which one common ureter enters the bladder, is rarely clinically significance. Alternatively, complete ureteral duplication, in which 2 ureters ipsilaterally enter the bladder, has a propensity for vesicoureteral reflux into the lower pole and obstruction of the upper pole, which can be problematic. 
                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 43
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 33
                    [parent_da_code] => 0
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                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-12-18 14:26:43
                    [modified] => 2008-12-18 14:26:43
                    [modified_by] => 
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [212] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 828
                    [name] => Syndactyly of the feet, simple (webbed)
                    [description] => Webbed toes is the common name for syndactyly affecting the feet. It is characterised by the fusion of two or more digits of the feet.There are various levels of webbing, from partial to complete. Most commonly the second and third toes are webbed or joined by skin and flexible tissue
                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 72
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 61
                    [parent_da_code] => 0
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                    [created] => 2008-12-19 17:05:24
                    [modified] => 2008-12-19 17:10:32
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [213] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 830
                    [name] => Syndactyly, complex (fused)
                    [description] => In complex syndactyly, the bones of adjacent digits are fused.
                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 0
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 44
                    [parent_da_code] => 829
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                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-12-19 17:51:51
                    [modified] => 2008-12-19 17:53:54
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [214] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 839
                    [name] => Hypospadias
                    [description] => Hypospadias is a birth defect of the urethra in the male that involves an abnormally placed urinary meatus (opening).Hypospadias results from incomplete or abnormal fusion of the urethral folds on the inferior surface of genital tubercule, so instead of opening at the tip of the glans of the penis, a hypospadic urethra opens anywhere along a line (the urethral groove) running from the tip along the underside (ventral aspect) of the shaft to the junction of the penis and scrotum or perineum. 
                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 80
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 75
                    [parent_da_code] => 0
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => Q54
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-12-19 22:33:07
                    [modified] => 2008-12-29 19:28:30
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [215] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 846
                    [name] => Facial clefts
                    [description] => Facial clefts found at the fusion site of the frontonasal, maxillary, and mandibular prominences. Lateral or median cleft lip, with or without cleft palate, is the result of fusion failure
                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 47
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 0
                    [parent_da_code] => 0
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                    [created] => 2008-12-22 15:06:13
                    [modified] => 2008-12-22 15:15:47
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [216] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 856
                    [name] => Hydronephrosis
                    [description] => A deficiency at any point along the urinary tract can lead to transient or permanent partial or complete obstruction of urine flow, causing proximal dilation of the collecting system that manifests as antenatal hydronephrosis. This obstructive process may not be pathologic but, instead, the result of normal development; however, if significant obstruction is present and persistent, nephrogenic tissue can be affected, resulting in varying degrees of cystic dysplasia and renal impairment. 
                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 41
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 32
                    [parent_da_code] => 857
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 6749
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => Q62.0
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                    [mesh_ref] => 
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                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-12-23 20:29:19
                    [modified] => 2009-05-04 20:01:08
                    [modified_by] => 2
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [217] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 866
                    [name] => Bronchopulmonary foregut malformations
                    [description] => Congenital bronchopulmonary foregut malformations are very rare anomalies that result in a communication between the esophagus and a sequestered part of the lung.The term 'bronchopulmonary foregut malformation' was coined by Gerle et al. in 1968. It includes a variety of congenital malformations, including pulmonary sequestration, foregut duplication cysts, and esophageal diverticula. It was left to Heithoff et al.to emphasize that these rare anomalies provide evidence of a common pathogenesis for the whole gamut of bronchopulmonary foregut malformations, which includes intralobar and extralobar sequestrations with or without communications with the alimentary tract, foregut duplication cysts, and esophageal diverticula. Srikanth et al. proposed an anatomical classification for bronchopulmonary foregut malformations and introduced the term 'communicating bronchopulmonary foregut malformations .
Communicating bronchopulmonary foregut malformations (CBPFM) are rare abnormalities of the development of the primitive foregut that result in an abnormal communication between the upper gastrointestinal tract and pulmonary tissue. They usually occur in isolation, but sometimes are seen in association with oesophageal atresia (OA).






 
   


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                    [created] => 2008-12-30 18:49:11
                    [modified] => 2008-12-30 19:14:12
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            [218] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 867
                    [name] => Esophageal duplications
                    [description] => The esophageal duplications  represents one of the two most common types of bronchopulmonary foregut malformations.(The primitive foregut gives rise to the pharynx and lower respiratory tract as well as to the upper gastrointestinal tract).The bronchogenic-type cyst occurs more frequently and is usually located in the mediastinum around the tracheobronchial tree, whereas esophageal duplication cysts are most frequently located in the right posterior inferior mediastinum. 
  Esophageal duplications may be separated from the esophagus or may share a common wall, but they are rarely in continuity with it. Duplications may contain gastric mucosa.
Duplications of the esophagus also can be associated with vertebral anomalies and intraspinal cysts and are often associated with intra-abdominal intestinal duplications. Most authorities ascribe these anomalies to failure of the notochord to detach from the endoderm, with persistence of a neurenteric canal.
                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 14
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 21
                    [parent_da_code] => 866
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                    [created] => 2008-12-30 18:51:42
                    [modified] => 2008-12-30 19:39:18
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
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            [219] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 868
                    [name] => Bronchogenic cysts
                    [description] => Bronchogenic cysts are part of a spectrum of congenital abnormalities of the lung, including pulmonary sequestration, congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation, and congenital lobar hyperinflation (emphysema).
Bronchogenic cysts and esophageal duplications are usually considered as separate foregut malformations. Yet, both are thought to arise from the same embryological event, division of the embryonic foregut(Bronchopulmonary foregut),and they share common histological characteristics, often making their clinical differentiation difficult.
                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 9
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 3
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                    [created] => 2008-12-30 18:52:00
                    [modified] => 2008-12-31 18:01:21
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
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                )

            [220] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 875
                    [name] => Camptodactyly
                    [description] => Campotodactyly is a flexion contracture of the proximal interphalangeal joint of the fingers
                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 34
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 45
                    [parent_da_code] => 0
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                    [created] => 2009-01-02 19:39:58
                    [modified] => 2009-01-02 19:42:59
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
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                )

            [221] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 878
                    [name] => Dysplasia of hip
                    [description] => Hip dysplasia, developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) or congenital dysplasia of the hip (CDH) describes congenital deformation or misalignment of the hip joint. 
                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 22
                    [category_code] => 9
                    [system_code] => 45
                    [parent_da_code] => 0
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 142700
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => Q65.
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => orthoped/456  
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 3056
                    [mesh_ref] => D006618 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2009-01-05 15:44:23
                    [modified] => 2009-01-05 15:44:23
                    [modified_by] => 
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [222] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 880
                    [name] => Craniosynostosis
                    [description] => Craniosynostosis characterized by the premature closure of one or more of the fibrous joints between the bones of the skull (cranial sutures) before brain growth is complete. Closure of a single suture is most common. In contrast to normal skull growth, in which the skull expands uniformly to accommodate the growth of the brain, premature closure of a single suture restricts the growth in that part of the skull and promotes growth in other parts of the skull where sutures remain open. This results in an abnormal shape of the skull, but does not prevent the brain from expanding to a normal volume. However, when many sutures close prematurely, the skull cannot expand to accommodate the growing brain, which leads to increased pressure within the skull and impaired development of the brain. Craniosynostosis can be gene-linked, or caused by metabolic diseases, such as rickets or an overactive thyroid. Some cases are associated with other disorders such as microcephaly (abnormally small head) and hydrocephalus (excessive accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid in the brain). The first sign of craniosynostosis is an abnormally shaped skull. Other features can include signs of increased intracranial pressure, developmental delays, or mental retardation, which are caused by constriction of the growing brain. Seizures and blindness may also occur. 


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                    [created] => 2009-01-05 20:08:21
                    [modified] => 2009-01-05 20:12:17
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        )

)