View a developmental anomaly category

Developmental anomaly categoryinformation for Dysraphism

Description: Dysraphism is incomplete closure or defective fusion of a raphe; particularly of the neural tube.


Developmental anomalies associated with this developmental anomaly category :

Array
(
    [Dacategory] => Array
        (
            [id] => 29
            [name] => Dysraphism
            [description] => Dysraphism is incomplete closure or defective fusion of a raphe; particularly of the neural tube.
        )

    [Thesaurus] => Array
        (
            [0] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 20
                    [name] => Omphalocele
                    [description] => An omphalocele is a defect of the anterior abdominal wall (failure to correct the physiologic midgut herniation which should have closed by the end of the 11th week pc), and is covered by a surrounding "membrane" (peritoneum and amnion); the umbilical cord inserts into the sac. Omphaloceles may result from an arrest of progression of the amnioectodermal junction toward the umblicus. Intra-amniotic mesoderm can not migrate through this amniotic tissue, preventing its maturation into mature body wall. Omphalocele typically contain bowel and/or liver. 
                    [author_id] => 1
                    [topo_code] => 4
                    [category_code] => 29
                    [system_code] => 61
                    [parent_da_code] => 0
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 4126
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => Q79.2  
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                    [created] => 2008-02-15 01:00:00
                    [modified] => 2008-12-17 18:13:00
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [1] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 23
                    [name] => Giant omphalocele
                    [description] => Giant omphalocele is defined as having a diameter> 5 cm at the level of the umblical wall
                    [author_id] => 1
                    [topo_code] => 0
                    [category_code] => 29
                    [system_code] => 0
                    [parent_da_code] => 0
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 13290
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                    [created] => 2008-02-15 01:00:00
                    [modified] => 2008-12-16 15:48:05
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [2] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 30
                    [name] => Meningocele
                    [description] => Meningocele is one type of spina bifida in which the spinal cord develops normally but the meninges protrude from a spinal opening in the vertebrae in a sac called the "meningocele." However, the spinal cord remains intact.
                    [author_id] => 1
                    [topo_code] => 65
                    [category_code] => 29
                    [system_code] => 15
                    [parent_da_code] => 854
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 5230
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => Q05
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                    [created] => 2008-02-15 01:00:00
                    [modified] => 2008-12-23 21:12:03
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [3] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 42
                    [name] => Cleft palate, bilateral
                    [description] => 
                    [author_id] => 1
                    [topo_code] => 48
                    [category_code] => 29
                    [system_code] => 55
                    [parent_da_code] => 847
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 4556
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                    [created] => 2008-02-22 01:00:00
                    [modified] => 2008-12-22 16:45:56
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [4] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 63
                    [name] => Myelomeningocele, lumbosacral
                    [description] => 
                    [author_id] => 1
                    [topo_code] => 65
                    [category_code] => 29
                    [system_code] => 15
                    [parent_da_code] => 464
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 5228
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => Q05
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                    [created] => 2008-02-25 01:00:00
                    [modified] => 2008-12-23 21:17:04
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [5] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 64
                    [name] => Spina bifida
                    [description] => Spinal dysraphism, or neural tube defect (NTD), is a broad term encompassing a heterogeneous group of congenital spinal anomalies, which result from defective closure of the neural tube early in fetal life and anomalous development of the caudal cell mass. Neural tube defects are the second most common type of birth defect after congenital heart defects. The 2 most common NTDs are open spina bifida, also known as spina bifida cystica (SBC) or myelomeningocele, and anencephaly. Spina bifida occulta (SBO) is a bony defect of the spine covered by normal skin. It is mild form of spina bifida and is often asymptomatic. The term 'spinal dysraphia' refers to both SBC and SBO (Botto et al., 1999; Fineman et al., 1982). 


                    [author_id] => 1
                    [topo_code] => 1
                    [category_code] => 29
                    [system_code] => 50
                    [parent_da_code] => 0
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 4137
                    [omim_ref] => 182940
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                    [ICD10_ref] => Q05.
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                    [created] => 2008-02-25 01:00:00
                    [modified] => 2008-12-23 20:45:31
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [6] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 141
                    [name] => Cleft lip, median
                    [description] => Clefts of the lip and roof of the mouth, (premaxillary agenesis)
                    [author_id] => 1
                    [topo_code] => 73
                    [category_code] => 29
                    [system_code] => 0
                    [parent_da_code] => 740
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 4557
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                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => 36.1
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                    [created] => 2008-03-19 01:00:00
                    [modified] => 2008-12-22 16:35:04
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [7] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 157
                    [name] => Myelomeningocele, thoracic
                    [description] => 
                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 0
                    [category_code] => 29
                    [system_code] => 0
                    [parent_da_code] => 464
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                    [created] => 2008-03-25 01:00:00
                    [modified] => 2008-12-22 18:00:08
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [8] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 159
                    [name] => Myelomeningocele,lumbosacral with hydrocephalus
                    [description] => Myelomeningocele (Open NTD,ONTD )is classified as a teratogenic process that results in a failed closure and abnormal differentiation of the embryonic neural tube during the first 4 weeks of gestation. Abnormal development of the posterior caudal neural tube produces a myelodysplasia. The defect can occur anywhere from the base of the skull to sacrum. The anatomic level of the spinal cord lesion roughly correlates with the patient's neurologic deficit.

Developmental abnormality of the cephalic anterior tube gives rise to several CNS anomalies, including Arnold-Chiari type II malformation characterized by cerebellar hypoplasia and varying degrees of caudal displacement of the hindbrain into the upper cervical canal through a widened foramen magnum. Arnold-Chiari type II malformation may impede CSF flow and cause hydrocephalus, which occurs in more than 90% of infants with myelomeningocele(particularly after treatment of the myelomeningocele). Cerebral cortex dysplasia, including cerebral heterotopias, polymicrogyria, abnormal lamination, fused thalami, and corpus callosum abnormalities, are other anomalies often associated with Arnold-Chiari type II malformations.


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                    [category_code] => 29
                    [system_code] => 15
                    [parent_da_code] => 854
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => Q05.2 
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                    [created] => 2008-05-08 02:00:00
                    [modified] => 2008-12-23 21:18:00
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [9] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 172
                    [name] => Cleft palate, bilateral, complete
                    [description] => 
                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 47
                    [category_code] => 29
                    [system_code] => 0
                    [parent_da_code] => 847
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                    [created] => 2008-05-09 02:00:00
                    [modified] => 2008-12-22 16:48:11
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [10] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 177
                    [name] => Cleft  palate with  cleft lip (CLP), median
                    [description] => 
                    [author_id] => 1
                    [topo_code] => 47
                    [category_code] => 29
                    [system_code] => 55
                    [parent_da_code] => 848
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                    [created] => 2008-05-09 02:00:00
                    [modified] => 2009-01-05 15:12:17
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [11] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 194
                    [name] => Rachischisis
                    [description] => A large neural tube defect in thoracic and lumbar region called rachischisis. It is could also be called a large meningomyelocele.
                    [author_id] => 1
                    [topo_code] => 65
                    [category_code] => 29
                    [system_code] => 15
                    [parent_da_code] => 854
                    [adicap_ref] => 
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                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => Q05
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                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-05-13 02:00:00
                    [modified] => 2008-12-23 21:04:09
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [12] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 197
                    [name] => Gastroschisis
                    [description] => Gastroschisis is an opening in the abdominal wall through which the internal organs push outside of the body.This defect is the result of obstruction of the omphalomesenteric vessels during development.
                    [author_id] => 1
                    [topo_code] => 0
                    [category_code] => 29
                    [system_code] => 0
                    [parent_da_code] => 0
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 4513
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                    [created] => 2008-05-13 02:00:00
                    [modified] => 2008-12-16 15:45:17
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [13] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 199
                    [name] => Ectopia cordis
                    [description] => Ectopia cordis is abnormally location of the heart.A rare congenital defect in fusion of the anterior chest wall resulting in an extrathoracic location of the heart. Depending on the position of the heart, ectopia cordis has been categorized into four types: cervical, thoracic, thoracoabdominal and abdominal. In the most common form, the heart protrudes outside the chest through a split sternum. Less often the heart may be situated in the abdominal cavity or neck.



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                    [topo_code] => 9
                    [category_code] => 29
                    [system_code] => 46
                    [parent_da_code] => 0
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                    [created] => 2008-05-13 02:00:00
                    [modified] => 2008-12-30 17:50:58
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [14] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 214
                    [name] => Cleft palate with  cleft lip, unilateral, complete
                    [description] => 
                    [author_id] => 1
                    [topo_code] => 47
                    [category_code] => 29
                    [system_code] => 1
                    [parent_da_code] => 848
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                    [created] => 2008-05-14 02:00:00
                    [modified] => 2008-12-22 16:41:33
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [15] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 266
                    [name] => Limb-body-wall complex syndrome
                    [description] => Limb-body wall complex refers to a rare combination of disruptive and lethal abnormalities which start early in the gestational process.
Two of the three following anomalies must be present to establish the diagnosis:
1. Thoracic and/or abdominal celosomia.
2. Exencephaly or encephalocele with a facial cleft.
3. Anomalies of the extremities.
These malformations may result from the presence of amniotic bands in the early embryonic period that interfere with normal embryogenesis (Thoracoabdominoschisis, facial clefts, and encephaloceles )also may be associated with amniotic adhesions, ruptured amnion, and amputation defects.
                    [author_id] => 1
                    [topo_code] => 1
                    [category_code] => 29
                    [system_code] => 1
                    [parent_da_code] => 0
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 7884
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                    [created] => 2008-05-23 02:00:00
                    [modified] => 2008-12-16 15:47:20
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [16] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 277
                    [name] => Encephalocele, frontal
                    [description] => An encephalocele results from failure of the surface ectoderm to separate from the neuroectoderm. This leads to a bony defect in the skull table. Frontal encephalocele always contain brain tissue and involve bridge of nose (60%) and nasal cavity (30%)
                    [author_id] => 1
                    [topo_code] => 46
                    [category_code] => 29
                    [system_code] => 50
                    [parent_da_code] => 148
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => Q01.0
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                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-05-26 02:00:00
                    [modified] => 2008-12-30 17:55:56
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [17] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 300
                    [name] => Meningoencephalocele,parieto-frontal
                    [description] => Hernial protrusion of the meninges and brain substance through a defect in the skull.
                    [author_id] => 1
                    [topo_code] => 46
                    [category_code] => 29
                    [system_code] => 50
                    [parent_da_code] => 148
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => Q01
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                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-05-29 02:00:00
                    [modified] => 2008-12-23 21:13:54
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [18] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 362
                    [name] => Bladder exstrophy
                    [description] => In classic bladder exstrophy, the lower urinary tract, genitalia, and musculoskeletal system are affected. It occurs due to failure of the abdominal wall to close during fetal development and results in protrusion of the posterior bladder wall through the lower abdominal wall.
                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 19
                    [category_code] => 29
                    [system_code] => 34
                    [parent_da_code] => 0
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 13837
                    [omim_ref] => 600057
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => Q64.1
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                    [created] => 2008-06-06 21:22:26
                    [modified] => 2009-01-05 21:33:26
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [19] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 375
                    [name] => Spina bifida occulta
                    [description] => Spina bifida occulta: In about 10% of people; the embryonic halves of the vertebrae do not fuse but are covered by skin and may be visible as a small dimple covered by a patch of hair.
                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 65
                    [category_code] => 29
                    [system_code] => 15
                    [parent_da_code] => 0
                    [adicap_ref] => 
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                    [created] => 2008-06-10 16:20:27
                    [modified] => 2008-12-22 17:43:54
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [20] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 379
                    [name] => Cleft lip, bilateral
                    [description] => 
                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 73
                    [category_code] => 29
                    [system_code] => 0
                    [parent_da_code] => 740
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => Q36.0
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
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                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-06-10 16:29:26
                    [modified] => 2008-12-22 16:33:05
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [21] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 381
                    [name] => Cleft lip, unilateral
                    [description] => 
                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 73
                    [category_code] => 29
                    [system_code] => 65
                    [parent_da_code] => 740
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => Q36.9
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
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                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-06-10 16:31:13
                    [modified] => 2008-12-22 16:39:00
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [22] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 388
                    [name] => Craniorachischisis
                    [description] => craniorachischisis totalis is the failure of fusion of the entire neural tube.

                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 46
                    [category_code] => 29
                    [system_code] => 50
                    [parent_da_code] => 194
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 8996
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => Q00.1
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
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                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-06-10 16:44:58
                    [modified] => 2008-12-23 21:53:38
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [23] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 393
                    [name] => Anencephaly and similar conditions
                    [description] => This group include Anencephaly, Acephaly, Acrania, Amyelencephaly, Hemianencephaly, Hemicephaly, Craniorachischisis, Iniencephaly 
                    [author_id] => 2
                    [topo_code] => 0
                    [category_code] => 29
                    [system_code] => 0
                    [parent_da_code] => 0
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => Q00.
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
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                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-06-10 18:05:58
                    [modified] => 2008-12-16 15:34:19
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [24] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 397
                    [name] => Iniencephaly
                    [description] => Dysraphia in the occipital region accompanied by severe retroflexion of the neck and trunk.
                    [author_id] => 2
                    [topo_code] => 46
                    [category_code] => 29
                    [system_code] => 50
                    [parent_da_code] => 388
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 12941
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => Q00.2
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-06-13 04:34:04
                    [modified] => 2008-12-23 21:52:20
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [25] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 410
                    [name] => Hydromeningocele, spinal
                    [description] => A meningocele forming a sac containing cerebrospinal fluid but no brain or spinal cord substance.


                    [author_id] => 2
                    [topo_code] => 65
                    [category_code] => 29
                    [system_code] => 15
                    [parent_da_code] => 30
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => Q05
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-06-14 21:30:14
                    [modified] => 2008-12-29 20:02:07
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [26] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 411
                    [name] => Meningocele, spinal
                    [description] => 
                    [author_id] => 2
                    [topo_code] => 64
                    [category_code] => 29
                    [system_code] => 15
                    [parent_da_code] => 30
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => Q05
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-06-14 21:42:00
                    [modified] => 2008-12-22 17:29:32
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [27] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 412
                    [name] => Myelocele
                    [description] => Spina bifida in which the neural tissue of the spinal cord is exposed 

                    [author_id] => 2
                    [topo_code] => 65
                    [category_code] => 29
                    [system_code] => 15
                    [parent_da_code] => 854
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => Q05
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-06-14 21:43:03
                    [modified] => 2008-12-23 21:09:50
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [28] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 416
                    [name] => Diastematomyelia
                    [description] => Diastematomyelia is a rare congenital anomaly that results in the "splitting" of the spinal cord in a longitudinal (sagittal) direction.
Anatomically it is characterized by a longitudinal splitting of the spinal cord at one or more vertebral levels, usually in the lower thoracic and upper lumbar area, sometimes associated with a bony, cartilaginous, or fibrous spur lying within the spinal canal and protruding through the dural sac into the spinal cord.
This is distinct from diplomyelia which is a true duplication of the spinal cord with two discrete dural sacs and two pairs of anterior and posterior nerve roots, and which is very rarely diagnosed during life.
Numerous dysplastic bony anomalies are associated with the neural malformation of diastematomyelia including extensive spina bifida, fusion of neural arches, hemivertebrae, fusion of vertebral bodies and increased interpediculate distance. It is more prevalent in females by a ratio of 4 to 1.

Two main theories exist to explain the aetiology of the disease:

(1) a failure of organization and differentiation of the neural tube from the primitive neuroectoderm in the third or fourth week of gestation, leading to persistence of abnormal mesodermal cells within the neural tube; 

(2) a persistent accessory neurenteric canal or dorsal intestinal fistula.

The symptomatology is not specific and does not differ from that encountered in other forms of spinal dysraphism such as tethered conus or lipomeningocele: scoliosis, gait disturbance with mild atrophy or weakness of one or both lower extremities, absent deep tendon reflexes, progressive paraparesis and bladder or bowel dysfunction. Cutaneous abnormalities on the back such as hypertrichosis, pigmented naevus, dimple or lipoma may be associated.


                    [author_id] => 2
                    [topo_code] => 65
                    [category_code] => 29
                    [system_code] => 15
                    [parent_da_code] => 855
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => Q06.2
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-06-14 22:02:43
                    [modified] => 2009-01-02 16:20:03
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [29] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 458
                    [name] => Laparoschisis
                    [description] => Laparoschisis is a rare birth disorder involving a defect in the abdominal wall through which some of the abdominal contents may protrude. The defect occurs near the umbilical cord
                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 4
                    [category_code] => 29
                    [system_code] => 61
                    [parent_da_code] => 0
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => 
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-07-24 22:39:41
                    [modified] => 2008-12-16 15:45:48
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [30] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 463
                    [name] => Spina bifida, lumbosacral
                    [description] => Spina bifida is a serious birth abnormality in which the spinal cord is malformed and lacks its usual protective skeletal and soft tissue coverings.
About 75% of abnormalities occur in the lower back (lumbar) region.


                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 65
                    [category_code] => 29
                    [system_code] => 15
                    [parent_da_code] => 854
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => Q05.7 
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-07-25 00:43:53
                    [modified] => 2008-12-23 21:08:10
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [31] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 580
                    [name] => Spina bifida occulta, lombosacral
                    [description] => 
                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 65
                    [category_code] => 29
                    [system_code] => 15
                    [parent_da_code] => 375
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => 
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-08-19 16:38:42
                    [modified] => 2008-12-22 17:46:07
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [32] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 636
                    [name] => Cleft palate, median posterior
                    [description] => 
                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 48
                    [category_code] => 29
                    [system_code] => 55
                    [parent_da_code] => 847
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => 
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-08-27 21:45:24
                    [modified] => 2008-12-22 16:54:34
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [33] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 679
                    [name] => Myelomeningocele,thoracolumbar
                    [description] => 
                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 65
                    [category_code] => 29
                    [system_code] => 15
                    [parent_da_code] => 464
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => 
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-09-09 17:20:37
                    [modified] => 2008-12-23 21:19:01
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [34] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 730
                    [name] => Cleft palate with cleft lip,bilateral, complete
                    [description] => 
                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 47
                    [category_code] => 29
                    [system_code] => 0
                    [parent_da_code] => 848
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => 
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-09-29 15:56:57
                    [modified] => 2008-12-22 16:44:35
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [35] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 740
                    [name] => Cleft lip
                    [description] => Cleft lip is a facial deformity that occurs when the parts of the upper lip fail to fuse during the early stages of fetal development, leaving a gap or indentation. Cleft lip is often accompanied by a gap in the roof of the mouth, known as a cleft palate.The prevalence varies from population to population, with people of Asian and Aboriginal descent at a greater risk. The causes of cleft lip are both genetic and environmental. It runs in families, and can be caused by prenatal exposure to chemicals such as antiseizure medications, alcohol and very high levels of vitamin A.

                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 47
                    [category_code] => 29
                    [system_code] => 0
                    [parent_da_code] => 846
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => 
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-10-02 23:02:06
                    [modified] => 2008-12-22 16:38:03
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [36] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 847
                    [name] => Cleft palate
                    [description] => Cleft palate may result from defective growth of the palatine shelves, failure of elevation of the shelves, failure of fusion of the shelves, or post fusion rupture of the shelves.
                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 47
                    [category_code] => 29
                    [system_code] => 0
                    [parent_da_code] => 846
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 4556
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => 
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-12-22 16:15:13
                    [modified] => 2009-05-04 21:37:04
                    [modified_by] => 2
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [37] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 848
                    [name] => Cleft palate with cleft lip
                    [description] => Cleft palate with cleft lip is a reduction in the size of the labial maxillary prominences and the palatine process of the maxillary prominences.
                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 47
                    [category_code] => 29
                    [system_code] => 0
                    [parent_da_code] => 847
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => 
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-12-22 16:27:51
                    [modified] => 2008-12-22 16:27:51
                    [modified_by] => 
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [38] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 854
                    [name] => Spina bifida cystica (aperta)
                    [description] =>  In Spina bifida cystica (aperta) the vertebral defect is associated with a cystic mass on the back. Spina bifida cystica (aperta) is further subdivided into the following groups: (1) a meningocele without cord tissue within the sac; (2) myelomeningocele in which spinal neural tissue forms part of the sac; and (3) rachischisis, which is the most severe form and involves a widely patent dorsal opening of the spine with or without residual cord tissue. Rachischisis is usually associated with anencephaly.


                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 65
                    [category_code] => 29
                    [system_code] => 15
                    [parent_da_code] => 64
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => 
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2008-12-23 17:55:11
                    [modified] => 2008-12-23 21:21:21
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

            [39] => Array
                (
                    [id] => 870
                    [name] => Diplomyelia
                    [description] =>  Diplomyelia is a true duplication of the spinal cord with two discrete dural sacs and two pairs of anterior and posterior nerve roots, and which is very rarely diagnosed during life.
                    [author_id] => 3
                    [topo_code] => 65
                    [category_code] => 29
                    [system_code] => 15
                    [parent_da_code] => 855
                    [adicap_ref] => 
                    [humpath_ref] => 
                    [omim_ref] => 
                    [possum_ref] => 
                    [snomed_ref] => 
                    [ICD10_ref] => 
                    [orphanet_ref] => 
                    [emedicine_ref] => 
                    [diseasesdb_ref] => 
                    [mesh_ref] => 
                    [fetusnet_ref] => 
                    [wiki_ref] => 
                    [created] => 2009-01-02 16:15:51
                    [modified] => 2009-01-02 16:18:38
                    [modified_by] => 3
                    [test] => 0
                    [isFree] => 0
                )

        )

)